Clinical psychologist-Assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
Counseling psychologist- Assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders but usually disorders that are of lesser severity.
Psychiatrist-Has expertise in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. Often has training in psychotherapy. May prescribe medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical procedures.
Psychoanalyst-Usually a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist who has received additional training in the specific techniques of psychoanalysis, the form of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud.
Licensed Professional Counselor- Master's degree in counseling, with extensive supervised training in assessment, counseling, and therapy techniques. May be certified in specialty areas.
Psychiatric social worker-Training includes an internship in a social service agency or mental health center.
Marriage and family therapist-extensive supervised experience in couple or family therapy. May also have training in individual therapy.
Psychiatric nurse-Typically works in a hospital psychiatric unit or in a community mental health center. May or may not have training in psychotherapy.
Medicine- only a limited number of psychologists are able to prescribe medications. However, an increasing number of clinical psychologists are involved in medication treatment decisions or have clients who are taking psychotropic medications. Recognizing the trend, the American Psychological Association(2011) released new guidelines for psychologists regarding prescription medications.
Antidepressant medications-Counteract the symptoms of major depressive disorder—hopelessness, guilt, dejection, suicidal thoughts, difficulty concentrating, and disruptions in sleep, energy, appetite, and sexual desire
¥ First generation: Tricyclics and MAO inhibitors
¥ Effective for about 75% of patients
¥ Increase availability of norepinephrine and serotonin
¥ Can take up to six weeks before symptoms begin to lift
¥ Side effects
¥ Serious physiological side effects when taken with common foods: cheese, smoked meats, and red wine
¥ Dangerously high blood pressure, stroke, death
¥ Weight gain, dry mouth, dizziness, sedation
¥ Second Generation
¥ Trazodone and bupropion
¥ No more effective than first generation
¥ Same side effects
¥ Third Generation: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
¥ Fluoxetine: Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil
¥ Effect the availability of a single neurotransmitter: serotonin
¥ Milder side effects
¥ Prozac: Headaches, nervousness, difficulty sleeping, loss of appetite, and sexual dysfunction
¥ Third Generation
¥ Dual-action antidepressants: Serzone and Remeron
¥ Affect serotonin levels
¥ Dual-reuptake inhibitors: Effexor and Cymbalta
¥ Affect levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine
¥ Dopamine-norepinephrine inhibitor: Wellbutrin