J Hains Clemson Biology 2040 Final Exam
Terms in this set (139)
What was the earliest empire mentioned in Lecture?
When did the industrial revolution begin?
The last half of the 18th century and the first part of the 19th century because of the Steam Engine
What were the primary sources of energy used by civilizations prior to the Industrial Revolution?
Animals and Wood
What is Specific Heat?
The amount of energy required to increase the temperature of one gram of material by one degree celcius
What is latent heat?
The amount of energy exchanged during the change of phase of one gram of any material compound without a change in temperature
Isolated Thermodynamic systems
exchange neither energy nor material across their boundaries
What do all ecosystems on earth have in common?
They conform to laws of thermodynamics, are open systems, and exchange both energy and material across their boundaries
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy is converted in isolated systems
What is entropy associated with?
The decrease of energy quality during any energetic process or exchange
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
In any energy exchange , entropy will tend to increase and the average quality of the energy in the system will decline
Which fundamental force affects the earths orbit around the sun?
Which fundamental force affects radiation?
Which fundamental force affects the Coriolis Effect?
Neither the Gravitational Force nor the Electromagnetic Force
Which fundamental force affects warm, moist air rising?
Both the Gravitational and Electromagnetic Forces
Which fundamental force affects Albedo?
Which fundamental force affects Evapotranspiration?
What is the difference between Electromagnetic Force and Gravitational Force?
Electromagnetic Force is stronger than gravitational force and has polarity. Both are strong over distances.
What is the SI Unit for Energy?
How does the Coriolis Effect affect a force in the northern hemisphere moving to the north?
It will be deflected clockwise, in an easterly direction.
How is energy defined?
Energy is force which effects change in an open system
Is Photosynthesis technology?
Is Coal technology?
Is oxygen technology?
Are Microprocessors technology?
Are Books technology?
Are Cake recipes technology?
Are GMO's technology?
Is wheat technology?
When does orographic precipitation cause precipitation?
When moisture laden air approaches a mountain range and is forced to rise and cool, thus forming an arid region on the other side when the dry air descends and warms up
What are characteristics of the scientific method?
Falsifiability, reproducibility, and self correction
What is uniformitarianism?
A concept necessary for all science and technology
What happens when humid air increases in altitude?
it cools due to expansion and water vapor may condense
When do tropical storms and precipitation occur?
At the convergence of two hadley cells
What is a maritime climate?
A climate that is strongly influenced by nearby marine waters
Which is more important, Climate or Weather?
What is albedo?
The proportion of incoming radiation that is reflected from a surface
How does most of the energy from the sun arrive?
In visible light and heat, 400-700 nm
What are the zones of the greatest deserts on earth?
They occur at approx. 30 degrees North and South in latitude
Outside the tropics, what is the cause of the seasonal climate changes?
The tilt of the earth on its axis with respect to its orbit around the sun
What is the global ocean conveyor belt?
It is driven by density currents and winds, and moves vast amounts of energy from one place in the oceans to many others.
Which surfaces have the greatest albedo?
Clouds and Snow
What are the two means of energy transfer?
Conduction and Convection
What does world pop. exceed since 2011?
What is the half life of carbon?
What is the half life of an element?
the time that it takes for the element to decay by half of its amount
How are fossil fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas formed?
In the prehistoric area by the decomposition of animals and organisms, sedimentary formed and was slowly pressed into the fossil fuels
What does hydrofracturing involve?
The use of high pressure water and other fluids to fracture the shale which contains the gas
What are the potential consequences of hydrofracturing?
Contaminate ground water with the chemicals used
How much of our electricity is generated by natural gas?
What is natural gas associated with?
Oil production and can be found in coal deposits
What is a major component of natural gas?
Simply methane gas as opposed to a mix of several gases which must be separated prior to use
How does natural gas occur?
it occurs as conventional associated gas, non associated gas, shale gas, and tight sand gas
The Keystone XL and Dakota access will transport what?
Where does the Keystone Pipeline cross?
Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas
What do we use natural gas for?
Electricity, Fertilizers, manufacturing, and commercial & home heating
Is Canada our major source of oil and natural gas?
Does the United States import Coal?
What is the carbon content in coal?
What are the four types of coal?
Anthracite, Lignite, Bituminous, and Sub-Bituminous
What is a major health concern for coal miners?
Who was the president of Duke Power Company that agreed to a contract with the UMWA president Arnold Miller?
What are the risks of hydrofracking?
Contaminated Wells, polluted streams, and human health problems
What is a unit train?
Any train in which the entire train is carrying one commodity to a single location
In the USA, 95% of our coal generates how much of our electricity?
what was the conflict at brookside mine about?
Wages, working conditions, and a no strike clause
Which president of the UMWA ordered the murder of which opponent?
Tony Boyle ordered the murder of Joseph Yablonski
How do Strip Mining and Mountaintop removal affect the land?
Hurts land, affects streams, but is very cost effective
What does a condenser cooling system do?
It eliminates waste heat, provides a pressure differential, and is a heat sink for approx 35-38% of heat waste.
How did the Brookside strike end?
It ended with a contract after Lawrence Jones was murdered
What happened after the strike ended?
The UMWA members went on strike a few months later for a national coal contract
What were the consequences of the strike and conflicts?
Better pay, better working conditions, and a fuel adjustment cause for utilities
What is the Unified Atomic Mass Unit?
When did oil originate?
Approximately 80-150 million years ago
Does the US still get oil from Saudi Arabia?
Where does the US import the most oil from?
What is Kerogen?
A waxy material the precedes crude oil and natural gas
What is Oil Shale?
It is very costly, and may require more energy to extract than is yielded
What is Bitumen?
A major component of tar sands which is diluted to form dilbit
How are tar sands extracted?
Using steam assisted gravity drainage
In the USA, how much of our transportation energy is provided by oil?
What has the USA begun to export?
What change occurred during Nixon's administration?
Shift from direct intervention to regimes
What is EROI?
Energy Return on Investments
Who created CENTCOM?
Who created AFRICOM?
George W Bush
What happened at the end of WW2?
Roosevelt met with the King of Saudi Arabia on the presidential cruiser to discuss Oil
Why did Osama Bin Laden switch from Ally to Enemy?
He was angry that the US troops did not remove troops
How much of the oil used by the allies did the US supply?
What is peak oil?
When the max rate of extraction is achieved
What happened with the Deep Water Horizon Spill?
1/2 a day of our oil imports was lost, most evaporated and the effects were not as lasting as the exxon spill
What is the curse of oil?
The social and political impacts than can occur if unstable governments discover large reserves on their land
What is the fundamental force employed in fossil fuel?
What does hydrofracking lead to?
What does acid rain result from?
Emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxides
When does acid rain result?
When chemicals combine with precip. to lower the PH
Where does man made mercury pollution come from?
Burning coal,, and is deposited from the atmosphere throughout the world
What are the sources of mercury?
Industrial Activity, Burning coal, volcanoes, and gold mining
How does mercury enter the ecosystem?
Through the production of methyl mercury by microbes during sulfate reduction
What do breeder reactors breed?
Isotopes of the same element will always have the same _______?
How are nuclear plants similar to coal fired plants?
They both are limited to thermal efficiencies of approx 35-40%
What does Nuclear power in the US employ?
Boiling Water reactors and pressurized water reactors
How much of energy in the US is supplied by nuclear power?
How much of the energy in france is supplied by nuclear power?
How is the waste from nuclear reactors dissipated?
using cooling towers or to a lake or river that is pumped through the condenser cooling system
What is the difference between pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors?
Pressurized reactors have a higher pressure and a secondary coolant system
What are some proposed nuclear waste disposal systems?
Yucca mountain, Salt Beds, and deep ocean trenches
where is Spent Nuclear Fuel originally stored?
In large pools of water for several years
what is unique about the CANDU reactor?
It uses natural uranium as fuel
What happened with the chernobyl reactor?
It was a conventional graphite design that exploded due to human error
What is the price anderson act?
It limited the liability of the nuclear industry
Why has use of Yucca mountain been delayed?
Because of technical and political issues
What was the accident at Fukushima caused by?
What are the basic particles in an atom?
Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons
What is the main fissionable element of Nuclear Fuel in the USA?
Plutonium can not be used in what?
Light water reactors
What was the damage at Fukushima?
There were three complete meltdowns and an area was contaminated
What are the adverse effects of mining uranium for nuclear power?
same as other mining operations but has the added bonus of possible local radioactive contamination
What is Base load power demand usually met by?
Coal fired and nuclear power plants, is another term for demand that is always present
Admiral Rickover was responsible for the basic design of the pressurized water reactor
What are uses for geothermal energy
Direct space heating, electric generation, and a heat pump/sink
Geothermal heat pump systems use
a closed or open loop water source
Why is conventional hydroelectric unlikely to increase?
Few impoundment sites
Hydro E power is well suited for peak load power bc
it has quick start and stop times
hydroeletric power provides approx how much of our energy in the US
less than 10%
Where does pumped storage pump water during off peak demand?
What is the energy to pump water upstream for pumped storage dependent on?
Price and Availability of Energy
Who first described the atom?
What is Marie Curie famous for?
Winning the nobel prize in multiple fields
Who created the periodic table
Clemson uses which sources for energy
Electricity and Natural Gas
Geothermal Energy can cause what
Hydropower impacts include
Flow alteration, fish entrainment, temperature alteration, and diminished dissolved oxygen
Which lakes are in the savannah river basin
Keowee, Jocasee , hartwell, Russell
Lake Jocassee is a pumped storage lake
What is an obstacle to geothermal electric power?
Distribution of geothermal sources
ONS distributes almost all of its waste heat into which lake
ONS cooling system does not pump water from Keowee to Joccassee
ONS condensor pumps what amount
twice the volumes of lake keowee