AP Human Geography: Models & Theories
All models & theories to know for AP Human Geography.
Terms in this set (50)
Concentric Zone Model
Burgess' concentric zone model is a description of the process of urban growth that views the city as a series of circular areas or zones, each characterized by a different type of land use that developed from a central core. There are five different zones: 1.Central Business District 2.Wholesale and Light Manufacturing 3.Low-Class Residential 4. Medium-Class Residential 5. High-Class Residential. Example: Chicago
A fraction that predicts the interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them (Population 1 x Population 2 ÷ Distance) The greatest distance will have the least spatial interaction.
Urban Realms Model
Theory in which is a spatial generalization of the large, late 20th century city in the U.S. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multi-centered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown. The only exception is e shrunken, sometimes struggling central realm which is focused on the CBD.
Latin American City Model
Griffin-Ford model. Developed by Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford. Blends traditional Latin American culture with the forces of globalization. The CBD is dominant; it is divided into a market sector and a modern high-rise sector. The elite residential sector is on the extension of the CBD in the "spine". The end of the spine of elite residency is the "mall" with high-priced residencies. The further out, less wealthy it gets. The poorest are on the outer edge.
Multiple Nuclei Model
Created by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1940s, it's a model that suggests that the CBD is losing its dominant position. A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities. There are nine different zones: 1. CBD 2. Wholesale, Light Manufacturing 3. Low-Class Residential 4. Medium-Class Residential 5. High-Class Residential 6. Heavy Manufacturing 7. Outlying BD 8. Residential Suburb 9. Industrial Suburb.
A model of North American urban areas, created by Chauncey Harris, consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. There are eight different zones: 1. Central City 2. Suburban Residential 3. Shopping Mall 4. Industrial District 5. Office Park 6. Service Center 7. Airport Complex 7. Combined Employment & Shopping Center
Focuses on residential patterns explaining where the wealthy in a city choose to live. Hoyt argued that the city grows outward from the center, so a low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the city's outer edge, creating zones which are shaped like pieces of a pie. There are five different zones: 1. CBD 2. Transportation & Industry 3. Low-Class Residential 4. Middle-Class Residential 5. High-Class Residential
Demographic Transition Model
Hypothesis that countries, as they become industrialized, have declines in death rates followed by declines in birth rates
Rostow's Stages of Growth
model that postulates that economic modernization of countries occurs in five basic stages between agricultural and service-based economies: Traditional society, Preconditions for take-off , Take-off, Drive to maturity, Age of High mass consumption
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther determined by analysis of range and threshold.
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Core Periphery Model
based on the notion that as one region or state expands in economic prosperity, it must engulf regions nearby to ensure ongoing economic and political success. The area of high growth becomes known as the core, and the neighboring area is the periphery. Cores and peripheries may be towns, cities, states, or nations.
Von Thunen Agricultural Model
It explains agricultural land use patterns by varying transportation cost. The pattern predicts more-intensive rural land is closer to the marketplace, and more extensive rural land is farther from the market place. These rural land use zones are divided into concentric rings.
Epidemiologic Transition Model
A shift in the disease pattern of a population as mortality fell during the first stages of the demographic transition. Acute infectious diseases were reduced, whereas chronic, degenerative diseases increased. It also meant a gradual upward shift in the age distribution of deaths.
Weber's Least Cost Theory
theory that described the optimal location of a manufacturing firm in relation to the cost of transportation, labor, and advantages through agglomeration
A geopolitical hypothesis that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. Mackinder further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
Malthus' Principles of Population
belief that there will always be poverty because food production can't keep up with the rising population, Based on the idea that all poverty comes from a lack of food, and there will never be enough food to support the growing population, and therefore there will always be poverty.
a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth
Based on the observation that explains how population increase necessitates increased inputs of labor and technology to compensate for reductions in the natural yields of swidden farming.
Rank Size Rule
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance from the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
World Systems Theory
Wallerstein's theory of the core, semi-periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. THe semi-perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. The periphery are states that lack strong central governments or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that maintained their own economic system and for the most part, remained outside of the capitalist world economy
A way of using natural resources without depleting them, and of providing for human needs without causing long term environmental harm
A version of market-oriented development theory that argues that low-income societies develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment.
A model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
Hypothesized a set of 11 migration "laws" that can be organized into three groups: the reasons why migrants move, the distance they typically move, and their characteristics.
developed the Rimland Theory, which argues that the Eurasian rim (land & sea), not the heartland, holds the key to global power. ___________ adopts Mackinder's divisions of the world, renaming some: the Heartland, the Rimland, and the Offshore Islands & Continents.
Geographer who created the Concentric Zone Model of the North American city
observed that population increase necessitates increased inputs of labor and technology to compensate for reductions in the natural yields of swidden farming.
created an agricultural model for market-oriented crops. A big assumption of the model is that all the farms and their crops have the same market. The model predicts the type of agriculture based on its distance from the farm to the market. Technology has slightly outdated the model. The model can be applied with rings, sectors extending outwards, or even realms.
Harris, C. & Ullman, E
Developed in the 1950s, this model explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces based on the assumption that growth occurred independently around several major "NODES", many of which are far away from the central business district and only marginally connected to it.
German economist who developed in 1909 a theory for the location of industries that focused on transportation, labor, and agglomeration as factors of production affecting the optimal (least cost) industrial location.
identified 12 major perceptual regions on a series of maps and analyzed the telephone directories of 276 metropolitan areas in the US and Canada & developed a migration transition model which complemented the demographic transition.
German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated central-place theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers. Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and in range
created the heartland theory which states that the heartland of the world was between the Volga to the Yangtze and the Himalayas to the Arctic. In the heartland the world was the most populous and most rich. The Americas and England and Australia are on the periphery of the heartland. He stated that whoever controlled the heartland controlled the world.
developed the Modernization Model - a liberal model that postulates that economic modernization occurs in five basic stages: Stage 1: Traditional
Stage 2: Preconditions for takeoff
Stage 3: Takeoff
Stage 4: Drive to Maturity
Stage 5: Age of Mass Consumption
Was one of the first to argue that the world's rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food production. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.
Published the sector model of urban structure, response to concentric zone model.
The creator of the world system theory, which explains how the globalization of capitalism led to changing relations between countries. He said that as capitalism spread, countries around the world became connected to one another in ways they had not been before.
developed hypothesis where in he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 language families:Europe's indo-European lang. North African and Arabian languages and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
developed the Zone of Profitability to determine the locations manufacturing plants could choose to maximize profit. He added the consumer demand and production costs to his calculations, determining the point of maximum profit is often difficult, but firms will usually try to identify a zone in which some kind of profit can be expected.
developed a Locational Interdependence theory that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.
epidemiologic transition model
has an age of pestilence and famine, age of receding pandemics and finally age of degenerative and human-made transitions. It was later expanded to five stages.
Proposed a four-stage model of the evolution of the American urban system.
Migration Transition Model
Migration trends follow demographic transition stages. People become increasingly mobile as industrialization develops. More international migration is seen in stage 2 as migrants search for more space and opportunities in countries in stages 3 and 4. Stage-4 countries show less emigration and more intraregional migration
Southeast Asian model
alien shops are close to the port which is the central point of the city. Dutch and British influence
Latin American city model
wealthy live close to the Spine
German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated central-place theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers. Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and in range.
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