Religion 104 Hinduism
Terms in this set (71)
non-dualism, Shankara's school of Vedanta, emphasizing the all-encompassing one ultimate reality, Brahman.
Vedic god of fire.
Peoples related to the Indo-Europeans, who migrated into India in ancient times.
The four stages of life for higher-class males in Hinduism: Student, householder, forest-dweller, and renouncer; ashrama is also a hermitage or place for meditation.
the soul or self, considered eternal
descent or incarnation of a god, as Krishna and Rama are avatars of the great God Vishnu.
traditional system of medicine in India.
important scripture from the Mahabharata, containing Krishna's teaching to Arjuna and summing up the fundamental ideas of Hinduism.
devotion, self-surrender to one's god.
designation for the creator god in Hindu thought.
Hindu term for ultimate reality; the divine source and pervading essence of the universe.
ritual commentaries, part of the vedas.
highest-ranked, priestly class in Hindu society
in Hinduism, the ritual act of being granted the "seeing" of a sacred image, person, or place; also, the six "viewpoints" or traditional schools of philosophy.
Hindu term for goddess, sometimes meaning the great Goddess, often under many other names.
The cosmic order, social duty, and proper behavior.
autumn festival of lights and good fortune in India
great, fierce Hindu goddess, often considered a form of Devi
Leader of the Hindu independence movement emphasizing spiritual preparation and nonviolent resistance (1869-1948)
son of Shiva, popular elephant-headed Hindu god who overcomes obstacles and brings good fortune.
spiritual guide and master
popular festival in northern India with a carnival atmosphere.
Vedic storm-warrior god
Indus Valley Civilization
urban-agricultural civilization that flourished in the third millennium B.C.E in the Indus River valley and influenced Hinduism
International Society for Krishna Consciousness
new Hindu movement, founded by Swami Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada(1896-1977), worshiping Krishna as the supreme manifestation of the divine; known as ISKCON, this movement has drawn many Westerners as devotees
"birth"; one's caste or closed social group as determined by birth in India
Goddess of death and destruction in Hinduism, often considered a form of Devi
"action" , law that all deeds and thoughts, according to one's intentions, will have set consequences, including rebirth
devotional group worship through song and dance
avatara of the great Hindu god Vishnu; hero of the Bhagavad Gita and popular god in Vaishnavite devotional movements.
The warrior class in Hindu society
phallic pillar that symbolizes the great God Shiva
one of the two great epics of Hinduism
powerful sacred words, formula, or verse chanted as a focus for meditation and devotion
appearance, illusion; term to indicate that which prevents one from seeing truly
liberation from bondage to Samsara and karma; the goal of Hindu spiritual practice
Path of Action (karma-marga)
Hindu path toward liberation based on acting according to Dharma, without desire for the fruits of action
Path of Devotion (bhakti-marga)
Hindu path toward liberation based on devotional practices directed toward one's god
Path of Knowledge (jnana-marga)
Hindu path toward liberation based on knowledge, emphasizing meditation
gift from the deity consecrated in ritual, especially food, shared by the devotee
Ritual worship of the image of a god by offering food, flowers, music, and prayers
late Hindu scriptures that developed from popular theistic devotional movements
avatara of Vishnu, divine hero of the Ramayana
modern Hindu holy man (1836-1886)whose teachings were brought to America by his disciple Vivekananda (1863-1902), who established the Ramakrishna Mission (Vedanta Society)
Hindu philosopher and advocate of the Vaishnavite Bhakti tradition (ca. 1017-1137)
story of Rama, one of the two great epics of Hinduism.
belief that after the death of its body the soul takes on another body, determined by karma
the earliest and most important collection of Vedic hymns
"collections" of early Vedic hymns and verses; there are four collections: Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda
one of the classical schools of Hindu philosophy stressing an absolute distinction between matter and spirit.
one who has renounced the cares and concerns of the world; its the fourth stage of life in Hinduism.
the rebirth cycle of existence
rituals performed at the critical changes and passages of life
self-sacrifice of a widow on her husband's funeral pyre; outlawed in modern times
divine energy, personified as a goddess; female aspect of a god, especially of Shiva
great philosopher of Advaita (nondual) vedanta (788-820 C.E)
one of the two great Gods, symbolized by the lingam; focus of the Shaivite devotional movement
"that which is heard," the eternal truth, that is, the Vedas
Classical servant class in Hindu society, the fourth class
"that which is remembered," the tradition, that is, the scriptural writings after the Vedas
Movement using initiation, rituals, imagination, and sexual symbolism as spiritual practices leading toward liberation
Hindu meditation movement founded in America by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (b. 1917), emphasinzing simple mediation techniques for practical benefits.
initiation of high-class boy into the student stage of life; he is given a sacred cord to wear over his left shoulder and taught the appropriate mantras
collection of teachings about the self and ultimate reality that makes up the last part of the Veda (Shruti)
the classical producer-merchant class in Hindu society
"color" term for the classes in the system of Hindu society
Vedic god of the heavens
Hindu groups in America and Europe following the teaching of Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902)and Sri Ramakrishana (1836-1886)
"end of the Vedas"; influential school of philosophy based especially on the Upanishads
most important scriptures of Hinduism, the shruti; they consist of the Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and the Upanishads
one of the two great Gods, worshiped also in his avataras Rama and Krishna
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