A prokaryotic cell is distinct from a eukaryotic cell because a prokaryotic cell lacks _____. -a membrane-bound nucleus -carbohydrates -a plasma membrane -ribosomes
a membrane-bound nucleus
The cell wall found in bacterial cells functions to _____. -regulate what passes in and out of the cell -maintain the position of the nucleus -synthesize phospholipids -protect the cell and provide shape and rigidity
protect the cell and provide shape and rigidity
The eukaryotic cell overcomes the problem of its larger size by _____. -only living in multicellular organisms -only living in non-extreme environments -always containing a cell wall -compartmentalizing cellular functions into various organelles
compartmentalizing cellular functions into various organelles
The ribosome functions in the synthesis of _____. -carbohydrates -proteins -nucleic acids -lipids
Which of the following eukaryotic organelles are found only in algal and plant cells? -chloroplasts -mitochondria -nucleus -Golgi apparatus
What central theme of biology helps explain why various cells can look so different from each other? -Cells correlate structure with function. -Different cells contain different macromolecules as their genetic material. -All cells need to engage in energy transformations. -Cells must be small in size.
Cells correlate structure with function.
Molecules move into and out of the nucleus through the _____. -nucleoid -nucleolus -chromatin -nuclear pore complexes
nuclear pore complexes
How are proteins transported throughout the endomembrane system? -The protein contains a molecular zip code that allows the protein to be shipped to the correct cellular compartment. -The cell sends the proteins to the cellular compartment that currently has the least amount of proteins in it. -The cell always synthesizes a protein in the compartment in which it will be used. -Every protein will have a nucleic acid attached to it, which tells the cell in which compartment it will be used.
The protein contains a molecular zip code that allows the protein to be shipped to the correct cellular compartment.
What three distinct elements make up the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells? -flagella, cilia, and centrosomes -carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids -actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules -ATP, TTP, and CTP
actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
Which of the following statements is true? -Chemical reactions take place slowly over time within cells. -Cells are dynamic, highly integrated structures. -Once organelles in cells are formed, they change relatively little throughout the life of the cell. -Microtubules, once formed, will never shrink in length.
Cells are dynamic, highly integrated structures.
Endocytosis moves materials _____ a cell via _____. out of ... membranous vesicles -into ... membranous vesicles -into ... facilitated diffusion -out of ... diffusion -into ... a transport protein
into ... membranous vesicles
A white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is an example of _____. -phagocytosis -pinocytosis -facilitated diffusion -receptor-mediated endocytosis -exocytosis
Which of the following is a correct match of cell type with structure? -nerve cell ... closely joined -skin cell ... has a large volume -intestinal cell ... closely joined -muscle cell ... has proteins that slide back and forth -skin cell ... has long extensions
muscle cell ... has proteins that slide back and forth
_____ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface. -Flagella -Cell walls -Pili -Ribosomes -Mitochondria
What is the function of a bacterium's capsule? -DNA storage -adhesion -protein synthesis -propulsion -protection
Where is a bacterial cell's DNA found? -ribosomes -nucleus -peroxisome -nucleoid region -capsule
In a bacterium, where are proteins synthesized? -ribosomes -nucleus -peroxisome -nucleoid region -capsule
What name is given to the rigid structure, found outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds and supports the bacterial cell? -capsule -pili -cell wall -flagella -nucleoid region
The _____ is the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell. -plasma membrane -nucleoid region -ribosome -pili -cell wall
Which of these organelles carries out cellular respiration? -chromatin -mitochondrion -smooth endoplasmic reticulum -ribosomes -nucleolus
The _____ is composed of DNA and protein. -chromatin -centriole -mitochondrion -ribosome -flagellum
Ribosomal subunits are manufactured by the _____. -nucleolus -peroxisome -smooth endoplasmic reticulum -rough endoplasmic reticulum -lysosome
_____ are the sites of protein synthesis. -Peroxisomes -Ribosomes -Mitochondria -Microfilaments -Golgi apparatuses
Which of these manufactures cellular membranes by adding membrane proteins and phospholipids to its own membrane? -lysosomes -nucleolus -rough endoplasmic reticulum -Golgi apparatus -ribosomes
rough endoplasmic reticulum
The _____ is a selective barrier, regulating the passage of material into and out of the cell. -lysosome -plasma membrane -nucleus -chloroplast -nuclear envelope
Where is calcium stored? -mitochondria -centrioles -smooth endoplasmic reticulum -rough endoplasmic reticulum -microtubules
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of these are hollow rods that shape and support the cell? -chloroplasts -microtubules -peroxisomes -microfilaments -plasma membrane
_____ is/are identical in structure to centrioles. -Basal bodies -Microfilaments -Chromatin -Mitochondria -Nuclear envelopes
Which of these organelles produces H2O2 as a by-product? -flagellum -centrioles -mitochondrion -peroxisome -nucleus
Which organelle plays a role in intracellular digestion? -chloroplast -Golgi apparatus -plasmodesma -ribosome -lysosome
Which molecules do not normally cross the nuclear membrane? -mRNA -Proteins -DNA -Nucleotide triphosphates
Which of the following statements about the nuclear envelope is false? -The nuclear envelope is continuous with the Golgi apparatus. -Molecules pass into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pores. -Nuclear pores are made up of a group of proteins that are collectively called the nuclear pore complex. -The nuclear envelope is composed of two lipid bilayers.
The nuclear envelope is continuous with the Golgi apparatus.
True or false? Large proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) bind to the nuclear pore and enter the nucleus without any expenditure of energy.
A small protein (molecular weight = 25,000 daltons) is injected into a cell and observed in the nucleus a short time later. What type of transport has taken place? -Osmosis -Active transport -Passive transport
In experiments to test whether a protein can enter the nucleus, why would proteins be labeled with fluorescent molecules? -To make the proteins bigger -To give the protein molecules energy -To make the proteins easy to see -To target the proteins to the nucleus
To make the proteins easy to see
Nucleoplasmin is a nuclear protein. This protein was divided into two segments and linked to the same large cytoplasmic protein, generating two fusion proteins. After injecting these fusion proteins into a cell, one of the proteins was found in the nucleus and the other in the cytoplasm. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these results? -Only one of the two fusion proteins possesses a nuclear localization signal. -The cytoplasmic protein contains a nuclear localization signal. -Nucleoplasmin does not have a nuclear localization signal. -One of the fusion proteins entered the nucleus by passive transport.
Only one of the two fusion proteins possesses a nuclear localization signal.
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____. -microtubules -intermediate filaments -tonofilaments -microfilaments -pili
Where do scientists obtain adult stem cells? -saliva -bone marrow -skin -pancreas
Ideally, the best scaffold for growing a replacement tissue or organ would be made of what? -silicon -plastic -cotton -extracellular matrix
In order to best eliminate the chance for rejection, a tissue or organ should be made from cells obtained from which of the following? -a cadaver -a donor pig -a sibling -the patient
If a fabricated windpipe is not receiving proper oxygen and nutrients, which of the following failed to properly regenerate? -blood vessels -white blood cells -keratin -mucus producing cells
Which of the following is most likely to receive a fabricated organ made from his own cells? -pancreatic cancer patient -lung cancer patient -bladder cancer patient -thyroid cancer patient