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42 terms

Chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY
A prokaryotic cell is distinct from a eukaryotic cell because a prokaryotic cell lacks _____.
-a membrane-bound nucleus
-carbohydrates
-a plasma membrane
-ribosomes
a membrane-bound nucleus
The cell wall found in bacterial cells functions to _____.
-regulate what passes in and out of the cell
-maintain the position of the nucleus
-synthesize phospholipids
-protect the cell and provide shape and rigidity
protect the cell and provide shape and rigidity
The eukaryotic cell overcomes the problem of its larger size by _____.
-only living in multicellular organisms
-only living in non-extreme environments
-always containing a cell wall
-compartmentalizing cellular functions into various organelles
compartmentalizing cellular functions into various organelles
The ribosome functions in the synthesis of _____.
-carbohydrates
-proteins
-nucleic acids
-lipids
proteins
Which of the following eukaryotic organelles are found only in algal and plant cells?
-chloroplasts
-mitochondria
-nucleus
-Golgi apparatus
chloroplasts
What central theme of biology helps explain why various cells can look so different from each other?
-Cells correlate structure with function.
-Different cells contain different macromolecules as their genetic material.
-All cells need to engage in energy transformations.
-Cells must be small in size.
Cells correlate structure with function.
Molecules move into and out of the nucleus through the _____.
-nucleoid
-nucleolus
-chromatin
-nuclear pore complexes
nuclear pore complexes
How are proteins transported throughout the endomembrane system?
-The protein contains a molecular zip code that allows the protein to be shipped to the correct cellular compartment.
-The cell sends the proteins to the cellular compartment that currently has the least amount of proteins in it.
-The cell always synthesizes a protein in the compartment in which it will be used.
-Every protein will have a nucleic acid attached to it, which tells the cell in which compartment it will be used.
The protein contains a molecular zip code that allows the protein to be shipped to the correct cellular compartment.
What three distinct elements make up the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells?
-flagella, cilia, and centrosomes
-carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
-actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
-ATP, TTP, and CTP
actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
Which of the following statements is true?
-Chemical reactions take place slowly over time within cells.
-Cells are dynamic, highly integrated structures.
-Once organelles in cells are formed, they change relatively little throughout the life of the cell.
-Microtubules, once formed, will never shrink in length.
Cells are dynamic, highly integrated structures.
Endocytosis moves materials _____ a cell via _____.
out of ... membranous vesicles
-into ... membranous vesicles
-into ... facilitated diffusion
-out of ... diffusion
-into ... a transport protein
into ... membranous vesicles
A white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is an example of _____.
-phagocytosis
-pinocytosis
-facilitated diffusion
-receptor-mediated endocytosis
-exocytosis
phagocytosis
Which of the following is a correct match of cell type with structure?
-nerve cell ... closely joined
-skin cell ... has a large volume
-intestinal cell ... closely joined
-muscle cell ... has proteins that slide back and forth
-skin cell ... has long extensions
muscle cell ... has proteins that slide back and forth
_____ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.
-Flagella
-Cell walls
-Pili
-Ribosomes
-Mitochondria
Pili
What is the function of a bacterium's capsule?
-DNA storage
-adhesion
-protein synthesis
-propulsion
-protection
Protection
Where is a bacterial cell's DNA found?
-ribosomes
-nucleus
-peroxisome
-nucleoid region
-capsule
nucleiod region
In a bacterium, where are proteins synthesized?
-ribosomes
-nucleus
-peroxisome
-nucleoid region
-capsule
ribosomes
What name is given to the rigid structure, found outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds and supports the bacterial cell?
-capsule
-pili
-cell wall
-flagella
-nucleoid region
cell wall
The _____ is the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell.
-plasma membrane
-nucleoid region
-ribosome
-pili
-cell wall
plasma membrane
Which of these organelles carries out cellular respiration?
-chromatin
-mitochondrion
-smooth endoplasmic reticulum
-ribosomes
-nucleolus
mitochondrion
The _____ is composed of DNA and protein.
-chromatin
-centriole
-mitochondrion
-ribosome
-flagellum
chromatin
Ribosomal subunits are manufactured by the _____.
-nucleolus
-peroxisome
-smooth endoplasmic reticulum
-rough endoplasmic reticulum
-lysosome
nucleolus
_____ are the sites of protein synthesis.
-Peroxisomes
-Ribosomes
-Mitochondria
-Microfilaments
-Golgi apparatuses
Ribosomes
Which of these manufactures cellular membranes by adding membrane proteins and phospholipids to its own membrane?
-lysosomes
-nucleolus
-rough endoplasmic reticulum
-Golgi apparatus
-ribosomes
rough endoplasmic reticulum
The _____ is a selective barrier, regulating the passage of material into and out of the cell.
-lysosome
-plasma membrane
-nucleus
-chloroplast
-nuclear envelope
plasma membrane
Where is calcium stored?
-mitochondria
-centrioles
-smooth endoplasmic reticulum
-rough endoplasmic reticulum
-microtubules
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of these are hollow rods that shape and support the cell?
-chloroplasts
-microtubules
-peroxisomes
-microfilaments
-plasma membrane
microtubules
_____ is/are identical in structure to centrioles.
-Basal bodies
-Microfilaments
-Chromatin
-Mitochondria
-Nuclear envelopes
basal bodies
Which of these organelles produces H2O2 as a by-product?
-flagellum
-centrioles
-mitochondrion
-peroxisome
-nucleus
peroxisome
Which organelle plays a role in intracellular digestion?
-chloroplast
-Golgi apparatus
-plasmodesma
-ribosome
-lysosome
lysosome
Which molecules do not normally cross the nuclear membrane?
-mRNA
-Proteins
-DNA
-Nucleotide triphosphates
DNA
Which of the following statements about the nuclear envelope is false?
-The nuclear envelope is continuous with the Golgi apparatus.
-Molecules pass into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pores.
-Nuclear pores are made up of a group of proteins that are collectively called the nuclear pore complex.
-The nuclear envelope is composed of two lipid bilayers.
The nuclear envelope is continuous with the Golgi apparatus.
True or false? Large proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) bind to the nuclear pore and enter the nucleus without any expenditure of energy.
False
A small protein (molecular weight = 25,000 daltons) is injected into a cell and observed in the nucleus a short time later. What type of transport has taken place?
-Osmosis
-Active transport
-Passive transport
Passive Transport
In experiments to test whether a protein can enter the nucleus, why would proteins be labeled with fluorescent molecules?
-To make the proteins bigger
-To give the protein molecules energy
-To make the proteins easy to see
-To target the proteins to the nucleus
To make the proteins easy to see
Nucleoplasmin is a nuclear protein. This protein was divided into two segments and linked to the same large cytoplasmic protein, generating two fusion proteins. After injecting these fusion proteins into a cell, one of the proteins was found in the nucleus and the other in the cytoplasm. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these results?
-Only one of the two fusion proteins possesses a nuclear localization signal.
-The cytoplasmic protein contains a nuclear localization signal.
-Nucleoplasmin does not have a nuclear localization signal.
-One of the fusion proteins entered the nucleus by passive transport.
Only one of the two fusion proteins possesses a nuclear localization signal.
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.
-microtubules
-intermediate filaments
-tonofilaments
-microfilaments
-pili
microtubules
Where do scientists obtain adult stem cells?
-saliva
-bone marrow
-skin
-pancreas
bone marrow
Ideally, the best scaffold for growing a replacement tissue or organ would be made of what?
-silicon
-plastic
-cotton
-extracellular matrix
extracellular matrix
In order to best eliminate the chance for rejection, a tissue or organ should be made from cells obtained from which of the following?
-a cadaver
-a donor pig
-a sibling
-the patient
the patient
If a fabricated windpipe is not receiving proper oxygen and nutrients, which of the following failed to properly regenerate?
-blood vessels
-white blood cells
-keratin
-mucus producing cells
blood vessels
Which of the following is most likely to receive a fabricated organ made from his own cells?
-pancreatic cancer patient
-lung cancer patient
-bladder cancer patient
-thyroid cancer patient
bladder cancer patient