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Terms in this set (43)
What is Kyphosis and what patient population is it common in?
-OUTWARD deviation of the thoracic spine
What is Lordosis?
-INWARD deviation of lumbar spine
-they get "bubble butt" hehe
What is Scoliosis?
-LATERAL curvature of thoracic vertebrae (sometimes thoracolumbar)
-commonly towards the RIGHT!! the scapula will be raised on this side.
T/F: Muscle atrophy is a sign of an UMN problem.
-Atrophy=LMN or peripheral nerve problem!
Describe the difference between a muscle twitch and a muscle spasm.
Twitch (or fasiculation): twitching of a small muscle group from repeated firing of motor neuron
Spasm: like if you slept wrong- from sprain/strain/pulled muscle
What can muscle spasticity unrelated to a strain/sprain indicate?
Upper motor neuron injury!!!
(spasticity is like a knot)
What is the difference between active and passive range of motion?
Active: we are telling the patients to do the motions
Passive: we are actually moving the limb. only done if we note a problem with active ROM!
What are the 5 grades for strength testing and which one is considered normal?
0: no movement/contraction
1: trace contraction, but no movement
2: FROM passively
3: FROM against gravity but NOT against resistance
4: FROM against gravity but weak against resistance
5: NORMAL!! FROM against gravity, full resistance
How do we test Cranial Nerve XI?
Trapezius and SCM strength
T/F: When testing internal rotation of the shoulders, the patient should put their hands behind back with their palms facing in.
palms should be facing out hehe :)
What are rheumatoid nodules, where do you see them?
hard bumps seen when the patient FLEXES the elbow! obvi assoc w RA
What are the 3 abnormalities of the hands/fingers that are associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
ulnar deviation, swan-neck deformity, boutonniere deformity
T/F: Swan Neck deformity is a flexion deformity of PIP joint.
Swan Neck= EXTENSION deformity!
Boutonniere= flexion deformity!
What are the 2 abnormalities of the hands/wrists that are associated with osteoarthritis?
T/F: Heberden nodes involve the PIP joints of the hands.
-Heberden nodes involve the DIP joints!
-Bouchard nodes are the PIP ones
What is the medical term for knock-knee?
What is the medical term for bow legs?
What is Pes Varus?
feet rolled outward, bottom of foot faces inward
What is Pes Valgus?
feet rolled inward, bottom of foot faces outward
What is the medical term for flat foot?
What is Pes Cavus?
abnormally high arch
What is a Hammer Toe?
MTP joint hyperextended, PIP flexed
What is a Claw Toe?
What is a Mallet Toe?
everything is normal, but the DIP is flexed
What is Hallux Valgus?
big toe tabled inward
T/F: The cranial nerves are considered part of the CNS.
The term "Rhinencephalon" refers to all of the following except?
A. olfactory epithelium
B. olfactory bulbs
C. olfactory tracts
D. parietal lobe
Smell is the FRONTAL lobe!
What is the term for loss of smell/inability to discriminate smells and what are some common causes?
Anosmia (rhinitis, tobacco, cocaine, trauma)
What is the difference between Amaurosis and Anopsia?
Anopsia- patterns of blindness
If there is damage to CN III, what way will the eye deviate?
Down and Out!
What is the function of CN IV?
innervates the Superior Oblique muscle
What is the function of CN VI?
innervates the Lateral Rectus muscles
If there is damage to CN V, what might you see in the jaw?
Jaw will deviate TOWARDS the side of the problem
CN VII is partially responsible for taste. Which portion of the tongue and what specific tastes?
Anterior 2/3 of tongue, salty and sweet
What should you do before testing CN VIII?
look in the damn ears first!
If there is a problem with CN X on the Left side, which way will the uvula deviate when this patient says "ah"?
to the right!
uvula deviates AWAY from the problem
If there is a problem with CN XII on the Right, which way will the tongue deviate?
to the right!
What is the name of the 3 pairs of tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brainstem?
What is the term that means you are able to perform rapid alternating movements normally?
What is the term that describes abnormalities with the finger-to-finger or finger-to-nose tests?
How far away from the patient's face should you hold your finger when performing the finger-to-finger test?
18 inches! (aka tony's male parts)
T/F: The Finger-to-Nose test should be performed with the patient's eyes open.
False! eyes closed damnit
What test will exaggerate a gait abnormality?
heel-to-toe walking! (tandem walking)
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