PSC 1305 FINAL - Flavin
Terms in this set (130)
Label the 2 axes of democracy
1. Contestation (many candidates to chose from)
2. Participation (a lot of people vote)
A society where political influence is primary wielded by a collection of competing groups is known as a(n) _______________ democracy
Identify the three essentials for democracy discussed in class.
1) Citizens can formulate political opinions
2) Citizens can communicate these opinions to the gov
3) Politicians weigh all opinions equally
In chapter 3 of your Current Debates book, Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scaclia argues that the most effective protection of liberty in the US Constitution is ____________.
Separation of powers and checks and balances
Identify two specific powers the national government lacked under the Articles of Confederation that led to demands for a new constitution.
1) Could not collect taxes - had to ask the states for $
2) Could not regulate commerce - states had different currencies & trade laws
Did the framers of the constitution believe that all policy decisions should be made by majority vote of the people?
No, because they feared that the majority would make policy decisions that would silence, disadvantage, or harm the minority point of view, thus producing a tyranny of the majority.
Which of the following was designed by the American Founders to be an office directly elected by the people?
Members of the House of Representatives
TRUE or FALSE: The U.S. Constitution reflects a view of human nature that all people are united by their love of country and concern for the common good.
FALSE... human beings are EVIL
Which of the following the constitutional basis for the states "reserved" powers?
The Tenth Amendment
The doctrine which states could simply declare a federal law unconstitutional and invalid if it threatened individual liberties or state liberties was known as:
Congress implied powers are derived from the ____________ Clause.
Necessary & Proper
Why is the policy making process in the United States said to have a status quo bias?
Due to the way that the government is set up with checks and balances & separation of powers... it is hard to have fast and drastic change
*Separation of powers creates a lot of veto points = hard to pass new laws
A _________ grant provides money to states and allows them flexibility in choosing how to spend the funds.
A _________ grant provides money to states but is accompanied by a fairly narrow and specific set of instructions on how to spend the funds.
Why are local governments considered "creatures of the state"?
Unlike States, local governments do not have a right to exist. The state decides if local governments are necessary or not, they only exist because the states allow them to.
This is known as Dillon's rule.
Why are the fifty states often referred to as "laboratories of democracy"?
States try out new laws and policies. If they are successful or beneficial then the national government will adopt them.
The process whereby individuals acquire political knowledge, attitudes and beliefs is known as:
In the study of political partisanship, what is the Independent ideal and why is it considered a myth?
Independent ideal: Independents are the most knowledgeable about politics and they are the most involved in politics. This is a myth because they hardly vote and they don't really pay attention to politics.
In the study of public opinion, holding consistent opinions on a liberal-conservative spectrum is known as:
Explain the difference between internal and external efficacy:
Internal efficacy: the person believes that they are knowledgeable to engage in politics
External efficacy: the person believes that the government will listen to their opinions and change
_________ is/are the most important influence on an individual's political socialization
In the study of public opinion, what is the "miracle of aggregation"?
ME: The "wisdom of the people" that a group of people is capable of being an accurate representation of being right. Ex: guessing the weight of an ox
OTHER: If you combine all public onions (after you disregard the radical out-liars) then you can get an accurate public opinion
A poll taken the day before Election Day with a margin of error +/- 3% reports that 52% of respondents plan to vote for Mary Jones and 48% plan to vote for Joe Smith. Does this poll tell us if one candidate is more likely to win the election than the other?
No b/c the margin of error is 3%. This means that Mary Jones could potentially have 49% or Joe Smith could potentially have 51%... these numbers overlap & are not reliable.
In public opinion polling research, what is the "Bradley effect?"
- It's an example of SOCIAL DESIRABILITY BIAS
-When a person lies in regards of voting or not in order to avoid being judged
-Ex: saying you voted when you didn't
Minorities do better in polls than in general elections. People do not give their true opinions on sensitive issues because of SOCIAL DESIRABILITY BIAS.
Whereas in the past, the relationship between religion and vote choice was mainly divided along denominational lines, today it is split among ___________ lines.
TRUE or FALSE: Ordinary Americans are more politically polarized than the politicians who represent them
Describe the Median Voter Theorem and identify how it might affect a candidate's campaign strategy
Theorem states that voters are typically more moderate & neutral, as opposed to being polarized. Bc of this, politicians need to appeal generally moderate to gain voter support
In contrast to using the voting age population to measure voter turnout in the United States, using the voting _________ population removes non-citizens and convicted felons.
The Civic Volunteerism Model is comprised of what three elements?
1) Motivation (desire to get involved)
2) Resources (money, time, civic skills)
3) Mobilization (someone gathers them)
_____________ Is the term used to describe interpersonal networks and the norms or reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.
Identify two ways discussed in class to increase voter turnout in the United States
1) Mandatory voting
2) Make Election Day a holiday
3) Vote by mail
4) Bundle elections
5) Same day registration
6) Automatic registration
TRUE or FALSE: Compared to other industrialized democracies, the United States has both lower voter turnout and lower rates of other forms of political participation like volunteering for a campaign or contacting an elected official.
During the nineteenth century, most newspapers were controlled by:
Does the media affect what the American public thinks and believes about politics? Drawing on what we discussed in class lecture, provide an argument that it does and an argument that it does not.
-Priming & framing has shown effects on voters' views & participation in politics
-Fragmentation allows voters to choose what media they are exposed to & can follow what supports their party
What is "horse race" journalism?
They report who is ahead/behind with the polls
In class, we discussed three major problems/debates that faced the American Founders:
1) the problem of majority & minority factions
2) having democracy, but not too much of it; and
3) Creating a powerful federal gov, but one that's not too powerful.
Choose TWO of these debates & then identify what the debate was about AND explain how the Founders decided to address the problem.
1) Faction: a group of people with opinions that stand apart from the whole
Majority factions can protect themselves from minority factions through the REPUBLICAN PRINCIPLE
o If they vote, majority will win
o Used to prevent minority rule from having too much power
o Majority faction would be able to represent majority rules
Minority factions can protect themselves from majority factions by "EXTENDING THE SPHERE"
o Prevents majority faction from having too much power
o Encourages a diversity in representation
o Politics responded to fear by integrating:
-Separation of powers
-Checks & balances
o Dual federalism & cooperative federalism...
-Powers either designated or blurred b/n state & fed. gov
o Const. designated enumerated, reserved, & concurrent powers to limit the fed gov's power
How did fear of self-interested human nature lead to fear of powerful gov?
-Humans are innately evil & concerned for themselves
-Bullshit the rest
The question of how an elected official should represent her constituents while in office is usually characterized as a debate b/n the "delegate" and "trustee" theories of political representation.
o First, explain what each theory means & identify ONE argument in support of each theory.
o Then, explain which theory YOU THINK should guide a rep.'s vote when public opinion in her district conflicts w/ her own conviction & judgment.
o DELEGATE Theory: Reps should follow their constituents' opinions when voting on laws/policies & making decisions
-->Argument for = Accurately represents the public's wishes
TRUSTEE Theory: Reps. vote on what THEY think is the best choice; disregards the public opinion
-->Argument for: Representative is probably more knowledgeable
Personally, I believe that Delegate is the best because the voice of the people will be heard. Also, using the delegate theory will prevent politicians from being corrupt with the trustee theory
1. Identify & provide a detailed explanation for each of the terms that comprise the "calculus of voting" equation.
2. Given this equation, what do YOU THINK explains why many people actually do go & vote on Election Day?
o RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY
-Utility max. & cost/benefit analysis (benefits>costs = you'll go vote)
--> Be sure to define the costs & benefits!!!
o V = PB - C + D (Depicts the voting rep. & turnout)
• V = Do you vote? (Yes if >0)
• B = Benefits of voting
• C = Costs of voting
• p = probability that your vote will decide the election & change the election (which is very small)
• D = Civic duty to vote (most critical variable; represents one's responsibility & job to vote)
o Voter turnout = low in U.S.
o Why people actually do vote:
- People are invested in self-interest (if benefits>costs.. they'll vote based on ECONOMIC PRINCIPLE)
-->Costs (Election day on weekday, time to: drive, wait to vote, register, etc)
- High internal efficiency
- Strong belief & support of a candidate
- Believes cand = true rep.
Other effects on polls = Horse racing polls
Paradox of voting --> costs will almost always outweigh benefits - unless you add in civic duty
Political Action Committees (PACs) are organized to do which of the following?
Raise and distribute money to candidates in political campaigns
What incentive do interest groups have to present accurate and unbiased information when they meet with legislators?
They will be seen as trustworthy, will be able to establish a relationship with the representative, then have legislation passed in their favor
The first modern mass political party was developed:
After Andrew Jackson's first presidential bid was defeated by a "corrupt bargain"
List the three ways to study political parties
Party in Government
Pie in Electorate
Explain what it means to "redefine the scope of conflict" Why would an interest group try to do this?
Redefining the scope of issue means that an interest group turns a cause into a larger, broader issue in order to attract more support
Describe Duverger's Law
It explains how Single Member District Plurality elections often result in 2 major political parties
Explain what the term "responsible party government" means
All candidates of a political party use a unified platform that consists of political views & opinions. The elected candidate then continues to use this platform & voters evaluate on this platform. This is often not the case as many candidates differ in opinions.
Provide 1 argument that political parties are good and 1 argument that political parties are bad.
They allow voters to identify w/ views & choices of debate & also increase voter turnout
Allow voters to remain disengaged & uninformed w/ politics
The __________ is a form or direct democracy whereby a group of citizens, after obtaining the required number of signatures on a petition, can get a measure placed on the ballot for citizens to directly vote on election time.
Identify 2 election reforms advocated by the progressive movement
1. Australian (secret) ballot
2. Direct election of Senators
TRUE or FALSE Under the "pre-clearance" provision in the Voting Rights Act, some states had to obtain the federal government's approval before changing their election laws.
Explain the difference between an open primary and a closed primary
-Don't have to pre-register in order to vote for a political party
-Can walk in on Election Day and vote
-BUT... MUST vote the same party across the ballot
-Voters must be pre-registered members in order to vote
The practice of redrawing congressional district boundaries to advantage a particular political party is called_______________.
What is a majority-minority congressional district?
- District in which the majority constituents is made up of a racially/ethnically MINORITY group
-Allows minority to obtain representation
TRUE or FALSE The public tends to approve of their own member of congress more than Congress as a whole institution
Identify one characteristic of a "quality challenger" in a congressional election
Previously held office
Assume that the party balance in the US Senate is 55 democrats and 45 republicans. Which of the following individuals would be a republican?
Senate Minority Leader
Who sets the length of floor debates on pending before the full house of representatives?
In the process of a bill becoming a law, identify 3 possible veto points
1. Conference committee
2. House/Senate does not receive enough approval
Temporary congressional committee that are established to study a particular issue are known as:
What is the purpose of a conference committee in the legislative process?
When legislation goes through both chambers, appointees from both chambers comprise a legislation that can be agreed & passed by both chambers of Congress before sending it to the president
What happens after 10 days if the President fails to sign a bill passed by Congress and Congress is still in session?
the bill becomes law without the President's signature
Explain the difference between police patrol and fire alarm oversight. Which better describes how congress usually exercises oversight for the executive branch?
-Oversight is always strolling & keeping a close eye on the exec. branch
-Oversight waits for a problem to occur that is brought to congressional attention
Congress usually exercises FIRE ALARM
In the U.S. Senate, how many senators must vote to invoke cloture and end a filibuster?
60 (three-fifths of the membership)
Briefly explain the difference between a presidential primary and a caucus.
-Depending on the type of primary, members elect a delegate through voting on a secret ballot
-REGISTERED members converse in a meeting/discussion environment
-Members vote by raising their hands
How is the line veto different from the president's veto power as define in the constitution. Why did the supreme court rule the line veto unconstitutional?
-Line item veto = unconstitutional
-Allows Pres to choose what parts the Pres approves/disapproves
-Legally the Pres has to veto the WHOLE document
-Ruled unconstitutional b/c it gave the Pres too much LEGISLATIVE power
AMTRAK is an example of which of the following?
Describe the principal-agent problems
-Principals & agents have different incentives & different levels of education
-Allows one to appear an "expert" and take advantage of others
Identify the 3 corners of an "iron triangle"
3. Interest Groups
TRUE or FALSE: The U.S. Constitution sets the size of the Supreme Court at one chief justice and eight associate justice.
If the Supreme Court grants certiorari, what was the Court done?
Agreed to hear arguments & rule on a case appealed to the Court
__________ is the power whereby the Supreme Court can rule an action by one of the other branches of government unconstitutional.
1. Explain the collective action problem (aka free rider problem) that interest groups face in American politics.
2. Explain one strategy interest groups use to try to overcome the collective action problem
1. Collective action:
o Occurs when large group share common interest & common goal
o As # of people increases, so does the problem
Free riders: expect to receive benefits w/o paying the costs
2. SELECTIVE INCENTIVES
o Used to decrease & discourage collective action
o = benefits given to particular members
o Three types:
o Items distributed by public interest groups as incentives to sign up/remain a member
Ex: AAA Auto Insurance; towing
o Being with like-minded people
o Feeling of shared commitment & purpose experienced by indiv. who join a public interest group
Ex: Joining social networks w/ people like you - gun range, etc.
o Values or deeply held beliefs that inspire individuals to join a public interest group
Ex: Sierra Club provides satisfaction of helping to save the environment
Incumbents typically win reelection to the U.S. House of Reps. at a rate of 90% or higher.
1. Identify THREE institutional "perks" of being an incumbent in the HOUSE and EXPLAIN how each perk helps an incumbent win reelection.
2. Given this high reelection rate, briefly explain whether you support or oppose TERM LIMITS that would allow a House member to serve for only three terms (6 years) in a lifetime.
o Incumbent advantages have decreased the competing races ("perks" = responsible)
- Pork barreling
- Franking privilege
- Constituency Services
- Name recognition = key to reelection
2. In favor because... bullshit it
o The appropriation of gov spending for localized projects secured solely/primarily to bring $ to a rep's district
o Used in derogatory fashion to attack opponents
o Wasteful Spending
Ex: Alaska's bridge to nowhere
o Generally limited to official business, constituent mail bulk mails, and other uses as prescribed by law
Ex: Free mail
Casework if a constituent has an issue with a federal service they can call up their congressman to open a case and investigate, personally serve constituents in ways that non incumbents cannot-personal vote
Identify 4 unilateral "power tools" the President possesses (but are not explicitly mentioned in the U.S. Constitution) and EXPLAIN how he uses each tool to bypass Congress & directly influence policy.
1. Executive orders
2. "Going public" & agenda setting
3. Executive Agreements
4. Presidential Signing Statements
o President's Unilateral "Power Tools"
o Presidential declaration, w/ force of law, that issues instructions to the exec. branch w/o any requirement for congressional action or approval
o Laws or orders passed by the president without congressional approval
"Going public" & agenda setting
o President's Unilateral "Power Tools"
o Directly addressing the public to win support for oneself or one's ideas
o Pres. = 1 person that can manage the media/public's attention
o Allows Pres. to prioritize what should be focused on
o President's Unilateral "Power Tools"
o Int. agreement... usually regarding routine administrative matters not warranting a formal treaty
o Made by the exec. branch of the U.S. gov w/o ratification by the Senate
o Agreement made b/n U.S. & a foreign gov made by the exec. branch either alone or w/ congressional approval & dealing usually w/ routine matters
Presidential Signing Statements
o Written declarations commenting on the bill that is signed into law
o Comments by President on a bill that is being signed into law
o Restricts gov action to protect indiv. rights
o This DEFENDS your rights from the gov
No religious establishment
o 1st Amendment
o Congress can make no law that establishes a state religion
The Anti-Establishment Clause = a limitation placed upon Congress preventing it from passing legislation respecting an establishment of religion
Free Exercise Clause
o Gov may not interfere in religious practices
Strict Wall of Separation
o Strict principles articulated in the Lemon test for judging whether a law establishes a religion
o Puts a wall b/n gov & religion
o Very secular gov
o "Wall of separation b/n church & state"
-Not a constitutional principle
o Principle that gov does NOT violate the establishment clause as long as it does NOT confer an advantage to some religions over others
o Believe that gov should not erect a strict wall... but instead allow two to mingle a little bit AS LONG AS we don't pref. one religion over another or religion over secularism
3 Prongs of the Lemon Test
In order to pass the Lemon Test, a law must:
1. Have a secular legislative purpose
2. Neither advance, nor inhibit religion
3. Have no "excessive gov entanglement" with religion
Exceptions of freedom of speech/expression
1. Clear & Present Danger
2. Fighting Words
Clear & Present Danger
o Violates freedom of speech
o Permits restrictions on freedom of speech if officials believe that the speech will lead to prohibited action (like violence or terrorism)
Ex: When the KKK burned crosses, waved guns, & called for "revengence" against Jews & African Americans
o Violates freedom of speech
o Expression inherently likely to provoke violent reaction
o Not necessarily protected by the First Amendment
Protection for the accused
1. Probable cause (4th)
2. Right not to testify/incriminate oneself (5th)
-Can't testify against yourself in your own trial
-No neg. image can be brought up that would turn that against you
3. No double jeopardy
4. Right to trial by jury
5. Right to legal counsel
o Probable Cause
-Required to search a suspect
o Exclusionary Rule
-Evidence obtained in an illegal search may not be used in trial
o Grand Jury
-Doesn't decide on guilt/innocence
-Decides only on whether there's enough evidence for the case to go to trial
o Double jeopardy
-Indiv. can't be tried 2x for the same offense
o Miranda Warnings
-Required rights read to suspects
Right to counsel
Selective Incorporation of the BOR
o Extends protections from BOR to the state gov, one right at a time
o Selectively applied to state/local laws over time
o REQUIRES gov action to help secure indiv. rights (equal treatment)
o Freedom to participate in the full life of the community
o This GIVES you rights
Ex: to vote, use public facilities, and exercise = economic opportunity
o Born/naturalized in U.S. = U.S. citizen
o Modifies Article 1 = 3/5 Compromise
o States may not abridge privilege or immunities of anyone
o States may not deprive anyone of due process
o Just Compensation Clause
o States may not deprive anyone of equal protection
o Repeals 3/5 Compromise
o Cannot hold any federal office position if previously Confederate officeholder
Equal Protection Clause
o Fourteenth Am
o No state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction "the equal protection of the laws"
"Separate but equal"
o Fourteenth Am
o Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
o Fourteenth Am
o "Separate but equal"
o Ruled that "separate but equal" was inherently NOT equal
-Separating people by race is UNequal in the eyes of the law
o Struck down segregated schools as unconstitutional
Civil Rights Act
** puts an end to LEGALLY racially segregated schools
De jure segregation
o By law (legal requirement)
o Separation enforced by law
o Gov and court can do something about it
De facto segregation
o Occurs when widespread indiv. pref, sometimes backed up w/ private pressure, lead to separation
o Exist w/o a legal basis
o Class of indiv. that have been historically subject to discrimination
- Any statue that makes a distinction b/n indiv. based on any of the suspect classifications (race, ethnicity) = subject to STRICT SCRUTINY review
o Gov must demonstrate a "COMPELLING INTEREST" to treat anyone differently under the law
o Judges must use STRICT SCRUTINY when deciding cases
o Deals w Race/Ethnicity
Strict scrutiny = compelling interest
o Form of judicial review that courts used to determine the constitutionality of certain laws
o Must have passed the law to further a "compelling interest"
o Must have narrowly tailored the law to achieve that interest^
o Deals w/ Gender
**Interm. Scrutiny = Exceedingly persuasive justification
o Gender = NOT considered a suspect classification
o Gov has an exceedingly persuasive justification to treat someone differently under the law
Advances a legit gov interest
o Courts apply the rational basis review when considering constitutional questions (14th Am)
o Used for sexual orientation & equal protection of laws
Sexual Orientation & Equal Protection of Laws
o NOT considered a suspect of classification
o Gov MUST demonstrate a "rational basis"
o Venue shopping
Seeking out gov. institution where you're most likely to be successful
o There's stability in gov (not a lot of laws are being past)... then there will be a radical change & then back to stability
John Kingdon's 3 Streams
of the public policymaking process
1. Problem stream - Problem has been identified
2. Policy stream - Implementing policies to solve the problem
3. Politics Stream -
All 3 streams need to be aligned in order to create a new POLICY WINDOW... which will then create a huge stream
Problem stream, Policy stream, and Politics stream flow through this
Major provisions of 1996 welfare reforms
o TANF replaces AFDC
o Block grants to states (yearly spending capped)
o Work requirements
-If they worked, they were not able to receive gov money (welfare check)
o Time limits = 2 years continuous, 5 years total
o Sanctions for drug convictions
o Child support enforcement
3 Goals of Fiscal Policy
1. Economic growth
2. Full employment
3. Low inflation
Competing economic ideologies for fiscal policy (2)
o Active gov. intervention to increase demand
o Lets the economy do its thing... reduce taxes & regulation
o Pres proposes, Congress must approve
o Gov spending (mandatory vs. discretionary)
o Deficits & debts
Mandatory Spending vs. Discretionary Spending
o What the gov HAS to spend $ on
o If you want to change the spending policy... you need to change the law
o Ex: Social Security, Medicaid
o Implemented through appropriations bill
o Ex: National defense, foreign aid. etc.
3 Goals of American Foreign Policy
1. National Security
2. Economic Prosperity
3. Promoting American Ideals Abroad
o National security
o More money can be spent on other things, rather than national defense when you are @ peace w/ other countries
o National security
o "Peace through strength"
o Deter any possible attacks from rival superpower
o Spending more & more on national defense to deter an attack from an enemy
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
o National security
o Countries refrain from striking each other b/c then they're likely to be attacked themselves
Bush Doctrine on foreign policy
o U.S. was no longer going to be reactive to foreign policy
- Make first strike instead of waiting for something to happen
o Not afraid to attack alone
International View on foreign policy
o Diplomacy, work w/ allies
o Put an emphasis on allies & work w/ allies (multilateral)
o Hesitant to use preemptive force
Democratic peace theory
o Democracies are very unlikely to fight wars w/ other democracies
o Supports the promotion of democracies
Spending on U.S. foreign aid
o Public thinks we spend a LOT more than we actually do on foreign aid
-However, they think we should spend more than we actually do
o We spend 1% of the federal budget on this
Goals of terrorism:
Rational or irrational?
o They want territorial concessions
o Incompatible worldviews (so, avoid appeasement)
Enhanced Interrogation Techniques
o Cruel and Unusual Punishment does NOT apply to war criminals
o Terrorists can experience interrogation techniques that a lot of people would view as unethical
o Once terrorists are captured... they are given this name so they don't have the same rights as "war criminals"
Civilian Trials vs. Military Tribunals
o Military officers act as both judge & jury
o After a hearing... guilt is determined by a vote of commissioners
o Vote does not have to be unanimous
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