1.2 Exploration , Conquest, and the Columbian Exchange

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Terms in this set (31)
Crusades- RELIGIOS WARS- shook the stability of European feudal society and whet the appetites of Europeans for foreign trade goods.
War goal: secure Christian control of the "Holy Land"
Trade routes and regional and international economic activity shifted power and priorities.
Europeans became interested in circumventing the Italian city-states and finding new trade routes with the East.
Feudalism- the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
Black Death- A widespread epidemic of bubonic plague that occurred in several outbreaks between 1347 and 1400. It originated in Asia and then swept through Europe, where it killed about a third of the population.
Bubonic Plague-the most common form of plague in humans, characterized by fever, delirium, and the formation of buboes.
Inspired ppl to explore and map new areas.
Johannes Gutenberg;s printing press (q440s) helped disseminate information and stimulated interest in new discoveries.
new interest in classical texts and art in 15th 16th 17th centuries- revolution in publishing by the printing press, moveable type, and postal service-
Protestest Reform.- Most important religious movement- Theologians Martin Luther and John Calvin both led breaks with the Roman Catholic Church over church practices and beliefs- believed church had drifted from its spiritual mission.
Luther did not believe n the Catholic Church's practice of selling indulgences (Remissions of sins)
When the pope of England refused to grant Kink Henry 7 a divorce, a break with Rome began.
Catholic Church underwent a reform )focus on renewed sense of spirituality within the Catholic Church
Lesuits- catholic order devoted to spreading their gospel throughout the world
The Impact of the Columbian Exchange on EuropeNew crops and livestock native to Americans introduced to Europe in 1500s. Spanish sailors brought syphilis back to europe TobaccoThe Economic Impact of Conquestposition of spaniards declined during the age of exploration and conquest influx of silver and gold into Spain set off a wave of inflation in the 1500 that made items more expensive taxes went up in Spain so that the monarchy could Pau for the military expenditures necessary to secure its new world empire Spain went into debt bc they kept borrowing more and more money from European banks to maintain its empire spaniards did not recovery from this depression until the 19th centuryTechnological Advances and New Economic Structuresin Europe and AmericaTechnological Advances and a Revolution in Navigationcompass, astrolabe, quadrant, hourglass all aided navigation helping sailors plot direction, determine speed and assess latitude. Portulanos-detailed maps Caravels- portugais maneuverable and sturdy shipsThe Joint Stock Companydeveloped in Europe in 1500s and became an important gain for exploration and colonization in the New World. Shareholders control part of the company in proportion to the number of shares they one Embraced by many European nations bc the risks of travel and nation would be spread out among multiple investors limited liability- shareholders can be held liable for company debts, but their liability is limited to the face value of their shareholding.Contact, Conquest, and Transformationscolumbian exchange and expansion of Spanish empire of 15th and 16th centuries ushered in moment demographic economic and social changesThe Spanish and Portuguese ModelsFirst explorers and settlers in the New World sponsored by the Spain and Portuguese. presence in New World led to deadly epidemics and decimated native populations overtime, racially mixed pop developed overtime in the New World (Spanish African Indians)Portugal and Spain lead the wayPortugal + Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on a search for new trade routes to Asia that would bypass the Italian city-states that controlled Mediterranean trade Bartolomeau Doas sailed around the Cape of Good Hope Vasco da Game reached India by 1498 Spanish also lead the way. Italian navigator Chris. Columbus convinced Spanish monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand to fund a venture west across the Atlantic to reach the east. NINA PINTA SANTA MARIA set sail in 1492- reached a Caribbean island named San Salvador- named the ppl INDIES- made two more voyages but never realized that he made it to a new continentSpanish and Portugese AmbitionsTreaty of Tordesillas (1494) between Spain and Portugal which settled the competing claims of the two countries to the newly explored lands outside of Europe by drawing a longitudinal line through the Atlantic Ocean and South America. Portugal granted land east of the line + Brazil in the western Hemp. and Africa Spain granted the rest of the lands of the Americas. Ponce de Leon reached Florida in 1513. Spanish alter established the first permanent europeans settlement that would become United States at St. Augustine FLThe Conquistadors and the Defeat of the Native PeoplesSpanish forces wrested control of much of central and south America form the native inhabitants, transforming the economic and social structures of the region and devastating the native pop. 16th saw brutal fighting in the Americas and again extended in dominance over much of central and south America Spanish Conquistadors vs Native Peoples was the defeat of the Media (Aztecs led by Montezuma) and forced led by Hernan Cortes Inacas of South America. defeated by a Spanish expedition led by Francisco PizarroDisease and Deathbubonic plague, influence, cholera, scarlet fever , smallpoxThe Columbian Exchange Transforms the AmericasEurope to new world- Germs new crops introduced, including sugar, wheat, bananas, domestic livestock horsesSpanish Exploitation of New World ResourcesEncomienda- used in plantation agriculture and in the extraction of precious metals. Native labor replaced by enslaved AfricansSilver and the EncomiendaSpain created a system to extract gold and silver and ship it to Spain (soon became wealthiest country in Europe) ENCOMIENDA- initial spnaihs settlers were granted tracts of land and the right to extract labor from local inhabitants. resemebled old world feudalism encomendaeros had a free hand to manage their holdings system led to brutal exploitation and eventually the repartifmientoParallels between colonial systemsSpanish- Repartimientos (a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.) English- Dominion of New EnglandSpain and the African Slave Tradespain participated in the international slave trade to import enslaved Africans to the NW in order to labor in plantation agriculture and miningThe Impact of the Slave Tradeslavery evident eben before the settlement of the New World 1) entire generations of strong and young ppl kidnapped and taken out of country 2) introduction of European manufactured items undermined the traditional African economyModern Slavery vs Ancient SlaverySlavery exissted since ancient times, but it has changed since the 1500s Captured africans were thought as salves for life, not temporary. Captured africans and their children slaves as well (break from tradition)Resistance to Slavery and the Development of the Maroon CommunitiesMaroon Communities were africans who had escaped from slavery in the new world and established independent communities (first in Caribbean and Brazil) Palmares- established in brazil in early 1600s- had more than 30000 residents and renamed independent community until it was conquered by Portugal in 1694The Casta Systemcasta- variety of mixed race ppl in the new worldJuanillos RevoltThe 1597 Guale Uprising, or Juanillo's Revolt as it is often called, brought the missionization of Guale to an abrupt end and threatened Florida's new governor with the most significant crisis of his term