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Articles of Confederation and the Constitutional Convention Vocabulary
Terms in this set (36)
A document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of a government. A written constitution would spell out the rights of all citizens, and it would limit the power of government.
A document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of the U.S. Government.
bill of rights:
A list of freedoms that the government promises to protect.
Bill of Rights:
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution Many felt that a bill of rights wasn't needed, because the rights protected were considered to be man's natural rights - already understood to be protected.
To carry out, e.g. to execute (enforce) the laws.
Articles of Confederation:
First approved in 1777, they were considered the first American constitution. It created a loose alliance of 13 independent states.
To give up, e.g. Maryland refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation until Virginia and other states ceded, or gave up, their claims to lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Land Ordinance of 1785:
Set up a system for settling the Northwest Territory. The land would be surveyed, and divided into townships. EACH TOWNSHIP WOULD THEN BE FURTHER DIVIDED IN 36 SECTIONS OF 1 SQ. MILE EACH. CONGRESS WOULD SELL SECTIONS TO SETTLERS FOR $640 APIECE. ONE SECTION WAS TO BE SET ASIDE IN EVERY TOWNSHIP FOR A PUBLIC SCHOOL.
SET UP A GOVERNMENT FOR THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY. IT GUARANTEED BASIC RIGHTS TO SETTLERS, AND OUTLAWED SLAVERY THERE. IT PROVIDED A WAY TO ADMIT NEW STATES TO THE UNION. ONCE A TERRITORY HAD 60,000 FREE SETTLERS, IT COULD ASK CONGRESS TO BE ADMITTED AS A NEW STATE. THE STATES OF OHIO, INDIANA, ILLINOIS, MICHIGAN, AND WISCONSIN WERE CREATED FROM THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY.
A PERIOD WHEN BUSINESS ACTIVITY SLOWS, PRICES AND WAGES FALL AND UNEMPLOYMENT RISES
DANIEL SHAYS WAS Massachusetts FARMER WHO LEAD A REBELLION over TAXES after the Revolution. OVER 1000 FARMERS REBELLED and attacked an armory in Springfield, MA. The government's inability to suppress the rebellion caused many to call for a stronger national government.
Convened in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787. Its goal was to revise the Articles of Confederation. When they recognized the Articles' great weaknesses, they decided to write an entirely new Constitution. The Constitution was ratified September 17, 1787.
Proposed by Edmund Randolph and James Madison, this plan called for a strong national government with three branches of government. The legislative branch would be bicameral (two chambers or houses), and representation in both houses would be based on a state's population.
Branch of government that makes and passes the laws.
Branch of government that carries out (executes) and enforces the laws.
A system of courts; they decide if laws are constitutional and if they are carried out fairly. It may also declare Executive (Presidential) actions unconstitutional..
NEW JERSEY PLAN:
Presented by William Paterson of New Jersey. This plan favored the small states. It called for three branches of government, and the legislative branch would be unicameral. Each state, regardless of the size of its population, would have only one vote in the legislature.
A settlement in which each side gives up some of its demands in order to reach an agreement.
Proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut, it called for the creation of a two-house legislature. The number of representatives that each state had in the lower house, known as the House of Representatives, would be chosen by popular vote and determined by a state's population. This made the large population states happy.
Description of the Senate under the Great Compromise
Members of the Senate would be chosen by state legislatures, and each state, no matter the size of its population, would have two senators. This appealed to the small states.
Agreement reached that allowed the southern states to count three-fifths of the number of slaves in their states as part of their population.
Slave Trade Compromise:
A compromise that stated that Congress could not outlaw the slave trade for twenty years. Northerners also agreed that no state could stop a fugitive slave from being returned to any owner who claimed that slave.
Leaders who laid the groundwork of government for the United States
A GOVERNMENT WHICH CITIZENS RULE THEMSELVES THROUGH ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES
A GOVERNMENT IN WHICH ONE PERSON OR A SMALL GROUP HOLDS COMPLETE AUTHORITY.
THESE INCLUDE THE RIGHTS TO PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY."THE GREAT CHARTER." SIGNED IN 1215 BY KING JOHN OF ENGLAND, CONTAINED TWO BASIC IDEAS THAT HELPED SHAPE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT: A) EVERYONE, EVEN THE KING HIMSELF IS SUBJECT TO THE LAW E.G. THE PRESIDENT OR SENATORS ARE NOT ABOVE THE LAW. AND ALL PEOPLE HAVE CERTAIN RIGHTS;
ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS:
STATED THAT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS MUST BE HELD REGULARLY. UPHELD THE RIGHT TO A TRIAL BY JURY AND ALLOWED CITIZENS TO BEAR ARÅMS. ALSO AFFIRMED HABEUS CORPUS; THE IDEA THAT NO PERSON COULD BE HELD IN PRISON WITHOUT FIRST BEING CHARGED WITH A SPECIFIC CRIME.
TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT (1690) DECLARED ALL PEOPLE HAVE NATURAL RIGHTS OF LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY. AND, GOVERNMENT IS AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE RULE AND THE RULED. THE RULER MUST ENFORCE THE LAWS AND PROTECT THE PEOPLE. IF A RULER VIOLATED THE PEOPLE'S NATURAL RIGHTS, THE PEOPLE HAVE A RIGHT TO REBEL. THE FRAMERS OF THE CONSTITUTION SAW THE CONSTITUTION AS A CONTRACT BETWEEN THE PEOPLE AND THEIR GOVERNMENT.
SEPARATION OF POWERS:
PRINCIPLE FROM FRENCH ENLIGHTENMENT THINKER BARON DE MONTESQUIEU WHICH STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RULE OF LAW. THE POWER OF GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE CLEARLY DEFINED AND DIVIDED UP. THERE SHOULD BE THREE SEPARATE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT: LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE, AND JUDICIAL.
SUPPORTED A STRONG FEDERAL, OR NATIONAL GOVERNMENT. MAIN LEADER WAS ALEXANDER HAMILTON
THOSE THAT OPPOSED THE CONSTITUTION, AND FAVORED HAVING STATES KEEP MORE POWER THAN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.
A COLLECTION OF ESSAYS WRITTEN BY JAMES MADISON, ALEXANDER HAMILTON, AND JOHN JAY WHICH EXPLAINED AND DEFENDED THE CONSTITUTION. "REQUIRED READING FOR ALL POLITICAL SCIENCE/GOVERNMENT MAJORS OR LAWYERS."
CHANGE. THE FRAMERS ESTABLISHED A WAY FOR PEOPLE TO ADD CHANGES TO THE CONSTITUTION, CALLED AMENDMENTS. THE PROCESS IS NOT EASY, SO CHANGES ARE NOT MADE LIGHTLY.
THE BILL OF RIGHTS:
THE FIRST ten AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. FIRST PROPOSED IN 1789 AS A COMPROMISE TO ANTI FEDERALISTS IN ORDER TO SECURE THE RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. BY DECEMBER, 1791, THREE FOURTHS OF THE STATES HAD RATIFIED TEN OF THE PROPOSED 12 AMENDMENTS.
Everyone is in complete agreement
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