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40 terms

Chapter 6 - Memory

STUDY
PLAY
Memory
the ability to store and retrieve info over time
Encoding
we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory. Memories are made by combining info we already have with new info coming in.
Storage
maintaining info in memory over time
Retrieval
bringing to mind info that has been encoded and stored
Elaborative encoding
actively relating new info to knowledge already in memory
Visual imagery encoding
storing new info by converting it into mental pictures
Organizational encoding
categorizing info by the relationships among items
Sensory memory
storage that holds sensory info for a few seconds or less
Short-term (STM)
storage holding non-sensory info for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
Rehearsal
the process of keeping info in STM by mentally repeating it
Chunking
combining small pieces of info into larger clusters more easily held in STM
Long-term memory (LTM)
storage that holds info for hours, days, weeks, or years
glutamate
a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain, used in memory
NDMA receptors
they influence the flow of information between neurons by controlling the initiation of LTP in most hippocampal pathways.
long-term potentiation
a possible source of the formation of memories; improvement in a neuron's ability to transmit caused by repeated stimulations
retrieval cue
a clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory
encoding specificity principle
the idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded
state-dependent retrieval
the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
transfer-appropriate processing
the idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match
retrieval-induced forgetting
a process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items
explicit memory
intentional or conscious recollection of information
implicit memory
the unconscious use of memory
semantic memory
The part of explicit memory that stores general information such as names and facts.
episodic memory
memory of personal experiences
procedural memory
memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits
priming
Enhanced identification of objects or words
Transience
forgetting what occurs over time
Proactive interference
earlier learning impairs memory for later learning
Retroactive interference
later learning impairs memory for earlier learning
Absentmindedness
lapse in (or division of) attention that results in memory failure
Blocking
failure to retrieve info "available" in memory
Memory misattribution
assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source
False recognition
feeling of familiarity about a person or event not encountered
Suggestibility
tendency to incorporate misleading, external info into personal recollections
Bias
the influence of present knowledge, beliefs, or feelings on recollection of past experiences
Persistence
intrusive recollection of events we want to forget
flashbulb memories
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
consistency bias
the bias to reconstruct the past to fit the present
change bias
the tendency to exaggerate differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past
prospective memory
remembering to do things in the future