#1 Drugs and Crime

More individuals are incarcerated for ______ offenses than for any other offenses, contributing to the _______ in correctional populations
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Terms in this set (31)
Controlled Substanceany psychoactive drug of chemical substance whose availability is restrictedWhy was the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 put into place?to control the sale and distribution of potentially addictive substancesToleranceneed more and more of the drug to achieve the desired effects; expect to see an increase of their usage from the first highPsychological dependencemood and emotion can be dependent on the drug, need the drug to feel good and without the drug they have difficultiesPhysiological Dependenceexperience adverse physiological reactions without drugDescribe Cannabis and its effects, withdrawal symptoms, dependence effects-most commonly used drug -a mild hallucinogen -psychiatric ingredient is THC -peak usage is from 15-25 and it drops off around 34 -feelings of relaxation, lethargy, decreased physiological activity -euphoria, innappropriate laughter, sedation, sensation that time is slowing, impaired judgement, impaired motor performance, increased appetite -no withdrawal effects -no physiological dependence -can have psychological dependenceIs cannabis associated with violent behavior?noDescribe Phenylclidine (PCP) and its effects-a depressant, anesthetic, tranquilizer, hallucinogen -can result in hyperactivity and hallucinations -paranoid hearing voices telling them to kill people -a synthetic substance -superman strength -PCP is used to get them high and use depressants like alcohol to bring them back down -most PCP users also are using other drugsWho is the common user of PCP?African American males in their 20sDescribe Methanphetamine and its effects, withdrawal symptoms,-stimulant -can be injected or smoked -smoking is the most common method of administration -made from ephedrine and pseudoephedrine -effects similar to manic and psychotic symptoms -delusions, hallucinations, decreased appetite, need for sleep, mood swings etcWho is the typical user of Meth?Caucasian males above 26 years oldIs Meth associated with violent behavior?yesIs it difficult to distinguish someone on meth from someone who has schizophrenia?yesDescribe Amphetamines, its effects, withdrawal symptoms-stimulant -psychological intoxication: euphoria, gregariousness, hyperactivity, restlessness, hypervigilance, talkativeness, grandiosity, anger and impaired judgement -physical effects- tachycardia, bradycardia, pupillary dilation, elevated or lowered BP, perspiration or chills, nausea or vomiting, psychomotor agitation, or retardation, weight loss, muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, confusion withdrawals- fatigue, vivid and unpleasant dreams, insomnia, hypersomnia, increased appetite, psychomotor agitation or retardation -withdrawals may lead to relapse because they don't want to feel the repercussions of being soberDescribe Cocaine, its effects, withdrawal symptoms-stimulant -most commonly used drug during an offense -psychological effects: hallucinations, delusions, panic, hypersensitivity, "coke bugs" -physical effects: snorting can cause damage to nasal septum, loss of smell, ingestion can cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract, CVS, increased heart rate, perspiration and respiration, can lead to death -sniffing, smoking, injectionWhat are the differences between Cocaine and Crack?-cocaine is more expensive -crack is mostly used by black men and cocaine by white men -sentencing disparity between crack and cocaine -5 years in prison for 5 grams of crack and 500g of cocaine -reduced the penalty for crack so there wasn't as much of a disparityDescribe Crack, its effects, symptoms-stimulant -purified, high potency of free base cocaine -effects similar to injected cocaine, but short lived -euphoria followed by depression, irritability, and cravings for more -results in rapid heart beat, can lead to seizures or heart failureDescribe Narcotics effects-effects: pain relief, relaxation, peacefulness and sleepHeroin-narcotics -most heavily used illegal narcotics ~$100 per gram -faster absorption through IV use, rapid onset of euphoria (under 10 seconds) -intramuscular injection takes about 5-8 minutes for peak effects -high rate of disease due to the needles -not associated directly with violent offending but it is linked to property crime and money producing crime -euphoria followed by apathy, psychomotor agitation or retardation, impaired judgement, pupillary constriction, drowsiness, slurred speech, poor attention and memory -withdrawals: anxiety, restlessness, achy feeling, intense cravings, irritability and increased sensitivity to pain, nausea or vomiting, pupil dilation, piloerection, increased sweating, diahrea, fever, insomnia -like the worst flu you could ever imagineGHB and Rohypnol-depressants -Club drugs produced in labs -takes about 15-30 mins to feel effects can take up to 6 hours, Rohypnol can last for 72 hours -GHB can induce dizziness, nausea, poor motor coordination and anterrograde amnesia -tasteless and odorless and typically mixed with alcohol to be a date rape drug -Rohypnol: manufactured abroad for sleep disorder, loss of consciousness, loss of muscle control, and anterrograde amnesiaAlcohol-depressant -most common drug of abuse -low doses is a stimulant, produces feelings of euphoria -at higher doses can result in poor motor coordination, reduced judgement, impulsivity, -up to 1/3rd of all convicted offenders who commit crimes consumed alcohol at the time of the offense -can increase the risk of violence among people who are violent prone -can result in aggressiveness, innapropriate sexual behavior, mood lability, impaired judgement, slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impairments in memory or attention -withdrawals: autonomic hyperactivity( sweating and increased pulse rate), increased hand tremors, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile and auditory hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, anxiety or grand mal seizures