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IB History 12 Paper 2 - Topic 11: Causes and Effects of 20th Century Wars

Terms in this set (6)

-1914 Archduke Assassination - this event sparks the start of the war

-1914 Russia mobilizes - to help Serbia against Austria-Hungary. This begins the rest of Europes mobilization

-1914 War begins - Germany invades Belgium beginning the war

-1915 Lusitania sinks - US ship is sunk, potential spark for US involvement

-1915 Germany limits subs - in attempt to keep US out of war but actually stops German efforts to prevent US supplies from reaching France and GrBr

-1916 First tanks used

-1917 More Subs - Germany resumes unrestricted sub warfare in European waters. This draws the US into the war and eventually leads to Germany's defeat

-1917 Zimmerman Telegram to Wilson - proposes Mexico sides with Germany incase of US-German war. In return Germany promises to return Mexicos "lost provinces" of Texas. Mexico declines and outrage pushes US farther toward entering war

-1917 Wilson wants war - he outlines his war plan to congress

-1917, May 6 US enters war - congress authorizes declaration of war against Germany. US enters war on the side of Britain and France

-1918 Germany and Russia - Germans sign peace treaty with Russian Bolshevik govt. Peace on eastern front allows Germany to shift soldiers to western front causing problems for France, GrBr, and US

-1918 Battle of Cantigny - first major US offensive of war

-1918 Major battles between US and Germany in Europe

-1918 Wilhelm - Kaiser Wilhelm leaves ending all German hope for victory. Disappears into Netherlands to live the remainder of his life

-Armistice Day - an armistice is signed ending fighting on the Western front
-1908 Creelman Interview - Pres Diaz states that Mexico is ready for democracy and a new leader

-1910 Plan of San Lois Potosi - Francisco Madero calls for all Mexicans to rise up against the dictator

-1910 More Madero - he persuades Orozco and Villa to join the revolution

-1911 Uprisings - Zapata leads an uprising of villagers for land and water rights. Armed revolts begin in other parts of Mexico

-1911 Orozco and Villa capture Ciudad Juárez (sister city to El Paso)

-1911 Francisco Madero elected President of Mexico

-1912 Pascual Orozco leads rebellion in Chihuahua, after losing gubernatorial election. Huerta, representing Madero, defeats Orozco and arrests Pancho Villa

-1913 Huerta leads coup against Madero, who is deposed, arrested and jailed

-1913 President Madero and Vice President Pino Suárez are shot to death. Huerta declares himself President of Mexico

-1913 US is against Huerta

-1913 Carranza is First Chief in fight against Huerta. Obregon leads Carranza's army

-1914 United States forces occupy Veracruz

-1914 Huerta resigns as President and flees to Europe on a German ship

-1914 World War I starts in Europe. United States leaves Veracruz

-1915 US recognizes Carranza as Pres of Mexico

-1916 Villa attacks Columbus, NM in retaliation of US recognition of his enemy Carranza

-1917 Constitution of 1917 - adopted by Mexico. New regulations to organized labor and helps support Catholic Church

-1919 Zapata is killed. Obregon announces campaign for Presidnecy

-1920 Obregon declares himself in revolt against Carranza, who is later murdered. Obregon elected Pres. Revolution is over
-1933 Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany

-1935 Italy invades Ethiopia under leadership of Mussolini

-1937 Roosevelt signs Neutrality Act of 1937

-1937 Japan defeats China, taking control of northern China

-1937 Roosevelt forbids US ships from carrying arms to China or Japan

-1937 Roosevelt quarantines war - delivers speech after Japan involvement in China declaring that peace-loving nations should act together to quarantine aggressors to protect the world from the disease of war

-1938 Hitler announces his support for Japan

-1938 US support for action against Japan is far greater than the US support for action against Nazi Germany

-1938 Hitler declares Austria part of the Third Reich

-1938 Warn the Jews - Hermann Goering, marshal of the Third Reich and Hitler's second in charge, warns all Jews to leave Austria

-1938 US recognizes Austria

-1938 Mussolini joins Hitler - In a speech in Rome, Benito Mussolini, fascist leader of Italy, promises to fight the democracies alongside Adolf Hitler's should war break out

-1938 US naval expansion act

-1938 Czechoslovakia - Leaders of France and Great Britain meet with representatives from Germany, including Adolf Hitler, to discuss Germany's demands, ultimately granting Hitler the Sudetenland in the hopes of gaining "peace with honor." The Czechs are not consulted. Hitler, in return for the Sudetenland, promises to leave the rest of Czechoslovakia alone

-1938 Tens of thousands of Jews are sent to concentration camps

-1939 Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia

-1939 Roosevelt writes letters to both Hitler and Mussolini, requesting they promise not to attack a list of nations for at least ten years. Hitler would respond on behalf of the Italian leader and himself, assuring Roosevelt that he had nothing to fear

-1939 U.S. Senators block the President's request for permission to offer economic aid to Britain and France in case of war

-1939 Nonaggression pact - signed by Germany and Soviet Union. Soviets can strengthen Western frontier and Hitler can attack Poland

-1939 Hitlers troops invade Poland on land and air force bombs Polish cities

-1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany, keeping their promise to Poland. Roosevelt invokes the Neutrality act

-1939 Congress lifts Aid Embargo. Munitions can be sold to Britain and France and prevents US ships from sailing into war zones

-1940 Hitler takes neutral Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Holland, and Luxemburg

-1940 Hitler invades and does major damage to France. British forces retreat and Germany defeats French forces

-1940 US Fleet moved from San Diego to Hawaii, Pearl Harbor

-1940 Mussolini's Italian forces attack France from the south

-1940 Crushed France surrenders to Germany and signs armistice. Britain stands alone against Axis Powers

-1940 US Congress enacts first Peacetime Draft in US history

-1940 Roosevelt makes a deal to give Great Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for naval bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and sites in the Caribbean and the South Atlantic

-1940 US embargo - stops providing Japan with gasoline, iron, and steel

-1940 Roosevelt elected for 3rd term

-1940 United States Naval Intelligence cryptographers crack Japan's secret communications code and learn that Japan intends to conquer China

-1941 Roosevelt proposes a "lend-lease" program, which would deliver arms to Great Britain to be paid for following the war's end

-1941 Roosevelt orders the United States Coast Guard to seize German ships that sail into American ports

-1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union violating the Nonaggression Pact. US extends lend-lease aid to Soviet Union

-1941 US defends Iceland

-1941 US and GrBr write the Atlantic Charter which defined the Allied goals for the post-war world

-1941 Roosevelt warns the Japanese government to cease all aggression toward neighboring countries or else face United States forces

-1941 US ends lend-lease aid to SoU

-1941 Trouble with Japan - The Japanese government decides to attack Pearl Harbor if negotiations with the United States fail. U.S. Naval cryptographers learn from secret code that Japan plans aggressive action if an agreement with the United States is not met. Japan dismisses American demands to withdraw forces from China.

-1941, Dec 7 Japanese fighter planes attack the American base at Pearl Harbor destroying U.S. aircraft and naval vessels

-1941 Germany and Italy, Japan's axis partners, declare war on the United States. The United States declares war on Germany, Italy, and Japan

-1942 Roosevelt delivers his State of the Union address in which he proposes a massive government spending budget, the largest in American history

-1943 US and GrBr meet to plan attacks on all fronts. Invade Sicily and Italy, to send forces to the Pacific, and to better aid the Soviet Union

-1943 Russian Red Army traps and captures German armies that had invaded the Soviet Union

-1943 The Italian government officially surrenders to the Allied powers; still, German forces occupy much of Italy

-1943 Allied powers announce the Cairo Declaration in which all three declare their intention to establish an international organization to maintain the peace and security of the world

-1943 In England, the Allied powers assemble 2.9 million men, 2.5 million tons of supplies, 11,000 airplanes, and hundreds of ships in preparation for D-Day

-1944, June 6 D-Day: The first of nearly 3 million Allied soldiers arrive in Normandy, on the northern shores of France

-1944 Allied troops take large portions of Normandy and Brittany initiating a German retreat. U.S. forces, aided by a Free French division, liberate Paris from Nazi control

-1945 The Allied powers meet in Yalta to negotiate Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe. The Yalta Conference would result in the dual administrations in Berlin, the break up of Germany, and the prosecution of war criminals

-1945 Roosevelt dies. Mussolini captured and murdered. Hitler commits suicide, 1 day later Germany signs unconditional surrender

-1945 US begins demobilization of army

-1945 First atomic bomb successfully tested in New Mexico desert

-1945 Allied leaders meet in Potsdam, Germany to send an ultimatum to Japan

-1945, Aug 6 Hiroshima

-1945 With still no surrender from Japan, the Soviet Union enters the Pacific war as promised in Yalta, defeating Japanese forces in Manchuria.

-1954, Aug 9 Nagasaki

-1945, Sept 2 Formal surrender ceremony, WW2 is officially over
-1905 Japan declared control and protection over Korea

-1910 Japan annexes Korea as a colony. Creates source of industrial and agricultural wealth for Japan

-1945 Potsdam Conference - By mutual agreement at the Potsdam Conference, the United States and Soviet Union—allies in World War II—make plans to jointly occupy Korea following the defeat of Japan. Soviet troops will occupy the northern portion of the country and the United States will take the southern half, with the 38th parallel serving as the dividing line between the two zones of occupation

-1945 In the last days of World War II, Russian troops begin moving into northern Korea

-1945 38th Parellel - Soviet forces complete their occupation of northern Korea, halting their southward advance through the country exactly at the 38th parallel, as agreed at the Potsdam Conference. The Soviets will wait patently for several weeks as the Americans hastily organize their own occupation of southern Korea

-1945 American forces finally reach Seoul, where they accept the Japanese surrender of southern Korea

-1946 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill gives his famous "Iron Curtain" speech at a college graduation in Fulton, Missouri

-1947 Truman Doctrine - Truman pledges American assistance to any nation in the world threatened by Communism, officially establishing the worldwide containment of Communism as a vital American national security interest

-1947 American forces begin to prepare to withdraw from Korea, hoping to leave the South as an independent state under the leadership of the pro-American conservative Dr. Syngman Rhee.

-1948 Rhee elected S.Korea's first President

-1948 Truman desegregates the US Armed Forces by signing Executive Order 9981

-1948 - Rhee's South Korean regime proclaims itself the independent Republic of Korea, denying the legitimacy of North Korea and claiming sovereignty over the entire Korean Peninsula. -
Communist North Korea, led by Kim Il Sung, proclaims itself the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, denying the legitimacy of South Korea and claiming sovereignty over the entire Korean Peninsula

-1950 Defensive Perim,eter - Secretary of State Dean Acheson pledges that the United States will fight to defend all territory within its "defensive perimeter," which he defines to include Japan, and the Philippines—but not Korea. Soviet leader Josef Stalin misinterprets this speech to mean that he can green-light North Korean leader Kim Il Sung's "liberation" of South Korea with little risk of intervention by the United States

-1950 North Korean leader Kim Il Sung goes to Moscow to ask Soviet leader Josef Stalin's permission to invade South Korea and begin the Korean War. Stalin gives the green light because he believes the United States has little interest in Korea

-1950, June 25 Communist North Korean troops launch a full-scale invasion of the South, beginning the open military phase of the Korean War. North Korean tanks and infantry surge across the 38th parallel into South Korean territory, quickly overrunning the defensive positions of overmatched South Korean forces. The Communists continue their southward advance, meeting little resistance in the countryside

-1950 In response to North Korea's invasion of his country, Rhee's forces will execute more than 100,000 people in the "Summer of Terror"

-1950 In consultation with top officials of the State and Defense Departments, Truman makes the critical decision to offer military aid to South Korea without seeking an official declaration of war from Congress

-1950 North Korean forces capture the South Korean capital city of Seoul

-1950 Battle at Osan, US overmatched

-1950 Communist forces continue their southward advance through the Korean peninsula, driving American forces back to Daejeon, 100 miles south of Seoul

-1950 US and SK forces establish stable defensive line outside the city of Pusan, at the far southeastern tip of the peninsula - the Pusan Perimeter. 90%+ of Korea's land now under Communist control. For weeks NK forces attack Pusan Perimeter but US holds the line

-General MacArthur orders massive amphibious landing of thousands of soldiers and Marines at Inchon, a city located along Korea's west coast not far from Seoul, hundreds of miles behind enemy lines. Catches NK by surprise allowing US to cut vital lines of supply for NK off at city of Pusan, forcing them north. US recaptures Soeul and soon all territory south of 38th Parallel.

-1950 Truman authorizes General MacArthur to order his forces to pursue the retreating North Koreans across the 38th parallel, into North Korean territory as long as he does not encounter Soviet or Chinese opposition

-1950 Communist Chinese forces, who have been secretly infiltrating Korean territory by slipping across the Yalu River under cover of darkness, ambush a South Korean regiment high in the mountains of North Korea

-1950 Chinese leader Mao Zedong, fearful of the consequences of hostile American forces taking up positions along his country's border at the Yalu River, orders hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers into battle in Korea. The massive Chinese intervention into the Korean conflict catches American military leaders completely off guard, leading to a series of crushing defeats

-1951 United Nations passes a resolution calling for a negotiated end to the conflict. The first peace talks between American, Chinese, North Korean, and South Korean negotiators will begin in August 1951, but will drag on for nearly two years

-1951 Truman makes an unauthorized public statement threatening the Chinese with imminent destruction if they do not withdraw from Korea. In Washington, President Truman and his Joint Chiefs of Staff conclude that MacArthur has become dangerously insubordinate

-1951 General Matthew Ridgway will replace MacArthur as Supreme Commander in Korea. Truman's public-approval ratings plummet below 25 percent

-1952 Eisenhower elected. He's a retired general and World War II hero, has built his campaign largely around a promise to pursue an honorable truce in the Korean War to allow the withdrawal of American combat forces as soon as possible

-1953 Korean War Armistice - After nearly two years of negotiations, diplomats from the United States, North Korea, and China reach agreement on an armistice to end the "UN peace action" in Korea without a formal peace treaty. Both sides claim victory; Korea remains divided at the 38th parallel

-1954 Geneva Talks Fail - At a high-level conference in Geneva, representatives from the United States and China fail to resolve the Korean issue. The armed stalemate at the 38th parallel will continue indefinitely
-1919 Ho Chi Minh ignored at Paris Peace Conference

-1940 Japan enters World War II, joining the German-Italian Axis coalition

-1940 The Japanese take possession of French Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam)

-1941 The Viet Minh—the League for the Independence of Vietnam—is founded

-1945 Japan sweeps away French rule in Indochina

-1945 Roosevelt dies, Truman becomes Pres

-1945 Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Japan surrenders (VJ Day)

-1945 Under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, the Viet Minh revolts against Emperor Bao Dai, Japan's hand-selected ruler. Emperor Bao Dai surrenders leadership to Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh. Viet Minh leaders proclaim the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with Hanoi its capital and Ho Chi Minh its president. No other countries recognize this regime.

-1945 The British land in Saigon to disarm the Japanese and to restore French control south of the seventeenth parallel, in what will become known as South Vietnam. After some fighting, the Viet Minh withdraws

-1946 Ho Chi Minh pens a letter to President Harry S. Truman, asking him for the support of the United States in gaining independence for Vietnam

-1946 Negotiations between French leaders and Ho Chi Minh break down. France refuses to grant Vietnamese independence and declares the southern region of Vietnam a French colony

-1946 The Viet Minh attacks French forces occupying Hanoi in northern Vietnam. The First Indochina War, also called the Franco-Vietnamese War, begins.

-1948 As a reward for his cooperation, the French allow Bao Dai to reclaim leadership of a nominally independent Vietnam, a position that France had denied to Ho Chi Minh two years prior.

-1948 United States begins to contribute money and supplies to the French war effort in Vietnam

-1948 Truman reelected

-1949 Bao Dai signs the Elysée Agreement, which gives Vietnam "independence" within the French Union. Still, the French retain control over all key governmental functions

-1950 The People's Republic of China, now a Communist state, recognizes Ho Chi Minh's government, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The Soviet Union recognizes Ho Chi Minh's government, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The United States recognizes Bao Dai's government, the Republic of Vietnam, and gives France $15 million in military aid

-1950 The first group of U.S. military advisors arrives in Saigon

-1952 Eisenhower elected as Pres

-1954 President Eisenhower refuses to commit American troops to the Franco-Vietnamese War

-1954 The Viet Minh launches its first assault on French forces at Dien Bien Phu

-1954 The French surrender to the Viet Minh. The Geneva Conference on the status of Indochina begins

-1954 Bao Dai names Ngo Dinh Diem the new leader of what will become South Vietnam.

-1954 France and Ho Chi Minh sign the Geneva Accords, in which Vietnam is to be divided at the seventeenth parallel until elections can be held in 1956 to reunify the country. The South Vietnamese government and the United States refuse to sign, though both promise to abide by the agreement

-1955 Ngo Dinh Diem, with the help of the United States, consolidates power in Saigon and rejects the Geneva Accords

-1955 Ho Chi Minh, following the communist doctrine, orders sweeping "land reforms" in North Vietnam; thousands of people classified as landowners and wealthy farmers are imprisoned, tortured, or executed. In a mass exodus, many Vietnamese families flee and head to South Vietnam

-1957 Ex-Viet Minh forces in the South organize and, with the support of Ho Chi Minh, begin a campaign of guerrilla warfare against Diem's administration

-1960 US increases military advisors in South Vietnam

-1960 Kennedy elected Pres

-1960 The National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, also known as the National Liberation Front (NLF) is formed to crush Diem's regime. The insurgent organization and its military wing—the Viet Cong (VC)—will be funded by the North Vietnamese government

-1961 An American serviceman dies in Vietnam, the first combat death reported. For many Americans, the death will mark the beginning of the Vietnam War.

-1963 Buddists Self-immolate - Thich Quang Duc, a 66-year-old Buddhist monk, sets himself afire in protest of the South Vietnamese government, its religious intolerance, and discriminatory policies; in following months, other Buddhists will follow his example and self-immolate to demonstrate against the regime

-1963 With U.S. encouragement, South Vietnamese General Duong Van Minh overthrows the Diem regime, and the following day he orders the execution of Diem and his brother.

-1963 Kennedy assassinated, Lyndon Johnson Pres

-1964 Some 1,000 students gather in New York City to protest the Vietnam War. Twelve burn their selective service registration cards—draft cards—in a symbolic gesture of opposition to the war

-1964 The USS Maddox reports 2 assaults by North Vietnamese gunboats, though evidence of 2nd attack is inconclusive. President Lyndon B. Johnson orders retaliatory strikes. The U.S. bombs North Vietnam for the first time

-1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - The U.S. Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gives President Lyndon Johnson the power to take whatever actions he sees necessary to defend South Vietnam against Viet Cong forces.

-1964 The first unit of North Vietnamese troops is sent to the South

-1965 Operation Rolling Thunder - Responding to a VC assault on the U.S. Air Force base at Pleiku, South Vietnam, President Johnson authorizes Operation Rolling Thunder. The operation is a bombardment campaign meant to cripple North Vietnam's transportation system and its industrial centers in order to halt the flow of men and supplies into the South

-1965 The first U.S. combat units arrive in Vietnam. Students across the nation rally against the war

-1965 American ground forces engage the Viet Cong in direct fighting for the first time. Platoons are sent to "search and destroy," that is, to ambush enemy forces and then withdraw immediately (rather than fortify and hold hostile territory)

-1965 200,000 US troops in Vietnam

-1966 U.S. prisoners of war (POWs) are led through the streets of Hanoi, where they are attacked by angry mobs

-1967 In a private letter to President Johnson, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara expresses grave concern about the war in Vietnam

-1967 President Johnson "releases" Robert McNamara, who has grown increasingly pessimistic about U.S. progress against the North Vietnamese, from his duties as Secretary of Defense

-1968 Tet Offensive - Beginning on the Vietnamese Tet holiday, Viet Cong forces shock U.S. troops with a wave of attacks supported by North Vietnamese troops. Heavy fighting will continue for months. Already low public support for war plummets

-1968 Ho Chi Minh's government declares it is prepared to talk about peace. Preliminary talks will begin in May, yet the U.S. troop level in Vietnam will continue to rise

-1968 Vietnam war becomes longest war in American history

-1968 Nixon elected Pres

-1969 Peace talks are held in Paris. Representatives from the U.S., the South Vietnamese government, and the NLF are present

-1969 Vietnam casualties exceed that of the Korean war

-1969 Nixon announces his plan for "Vietnamization" of the war—that is, training and transitioning South Vietnamese troops to assume the roles that have been fulfilled by American troops—and promises to withdraw 25,000 American soldiers

-1969 Ho Chi Minh dies

-1969 More war protesting

-1970 Nixon announces that American and South Vietnamese units have invaded Cambodia to destroy bases that have provided aid to the NLF.

-1970 Many college students killed by police during anti-war protests, not all were protesting

-1971 The House and the Senate vote to withdraw all U.S. troops in Vietnam by year's end. 26th Amendment is ratified, lowering the national voting age from 21 to 18

-1972 Nixon orders massive bombing of North Vietnam in response to a major attack launched by the NLF in South Vietnam

-1972 Watergate Scandal - Five men are caught burglarizing the headquarters for the Democratic National Committee, located at the Watergate hotel in Washington, D.C. Their arrests will set into motion the events that will eventually result in President Nixon's resignation

-1972 The last U.S. ground troops leave Vietnam. Thousands of airmen, advisors, and support personnel remain

-1973 Representatives from South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the United States sign a peace agreement in which a ceasefire is declared, the U.S. agrees to withdraw combat troops, and the government of South Vietnam promises to hold free elections to allow its people to decide their future

-1973 North Vietnam releases nearly 600 American POWs

-1974 The ceasefire in Vietnam is officially over. President Nixon resigns amidst the Watergate scandal; his vice president Gerald Ford takes office.

-1975 The North Vietnamese take Saigon; the war in Vietnam ends
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