Social Institutions I
Terms in this set (74)
Economy, polity, education
3 core human institutions are:
Life forms that depend on organization rely on _________________________________ in the pursuit of resources.
Coordinated efforts toward securing
resources are group rather than individual phenomena; these efforts become an _________________.
A system of producing goods and
services, involving the following:
1. The gathering of resources.
2. The conversion of resources into usable commodities.
3. The distribution of these commodities to members
of a population.
T or F?
Gathering, conversion, and distribution of resources
are fundamental processes in the survival of our
status positions, normative expectations, and roles
Gathering, conversion, and distribution of resources create a social structure of 3 things:
Capitalism and socialism
The two main economic systems in
the world today are what?
______________________ is defined by...
1. Private ownership of means of production
2. Market competition
3. Pursuit of profit
_______________________ is defined by...
1. Public ownership of means of production
2. Central planning
3. The distribution of goods without profit
Market forces should determine products and prices.
Profit is good.
An item's value is based on the work that went into it.
The government should protect workers from exploitation.
Profit is immoral.
It creates social inequality.
The few who own the means of
production reap huge profits.
A select few at the top of the hierarchy exploit the majority who exist at the bottom.
Criticisms of capitalism include...
It does not value individual rights.
The government controls people's lives.
It gives everyone an equal chance to be poor.
Criticisms of socialism include...
2. White-collar vs.
4. Organization size
6. Formation of labor
7. Command and market
Industrial societies have experienced many changes in the nature of their labor force, including changes regarding these 8 things:
_______________________ societies are defined by the movement of workers out of primary ______________
and into secondary and tertiary _________________.
These industries produce raw materials (farming, fishing, mining, forestry).
These industries turn raw materials into finished products (mills and factories).
These industries are service oriented (education,
government, police and fire, etc.).
The growth of white-collar (non-manual) jobs.
____% of U.S. jobs at beginning of the 20th century were white collar.
____%+ of U.S. jobs today are white collar.
Increasing employment of women
outside the household.
Until the ____th century most women worked within households.
Today the majority of women are also employed outside households.
Just know these...it is astounding
The growth in the size of work
The U.S. government employs 2,700,000
The city of New York employs 565,000
Wal-Mart employs 2,300,000
McDonalds employs 420,000
E.g. the U.S. Department of Labor lists _______________ different jobs.
Inadequate pay and unsafe working conditions led to the organization of
In the prehistoric past, all economies were
____________________ economies (providing only basic needs); over time these became command and
is an elitist system where a
select few make choices regarding trade for an entire community.
producers freely trade goods
and services with other producers (based on supply
occurs when a society
transfers their production of goods and services to industrializing societies where labor costs are lower; one of the most
controversial developments in industrial societies in recent years.
is the consolidation and centralization of
power in the hands of leaders who possess the capacity to make binding decisions on members
of a population.
1. Coordinate activities
2. Allocate tasks
3. Distribute valued resources
4. Maintain social control
A system of polity helps a society do 4 main things:
refers to power relations
wherever they exist.
is the exercise of power in
is the exercise of power in
large groups (i.e. the government).
As Weber noted, ___________ is the ability to carry out one's will despite the resistance of others.
Power can be perceived as ______________
(authority) or ___________________ (coercion).
traditional, rational-legal, and
Power is legitimated through three types of authority:
T or F?
A government that is viewed as legitimate is more stable than one that is not.
______________________ ________________ is based on custom or habit; defines authority structures for most societies across history; systems are stable, yet limited.
based on law or written rules and regulations; also called
"legal" or "bureaucratic" authority; represents a shift from deferring to heredity, kinship, religious status, etc. to authority structures based on competence.
based on an individual's outstanding traits; these leaders can motivate
incredible collective action, but
accomplishments inspired by such leaders are temporary if not institutionalized into a
routinization of charisma.
Transferring charismatic inspiration into a permanent aspect of an organization is called
the _______________________ _____ ______________
Dictatorship / Oligarchy
Types of government include:
a government headed
by a king or queen; existed in city-states (an independent city whose power radiates outward, bringing adjacent areas under its rule); As city-states warred with one another, the victors would extend their rule, eventually over an entire
region; As the size of these regions grew, people began to
identify with the region; over time this gave rise to the state
government whose authority derives from the people; The first one existed 2,000 years ago in Greece; Modern ones are defined by
citizenship: the concept that birth in a country imparts basic rights.
T or F?
All Western industrialized nations are democracies.
The ________________ age is the first era where the powers of government benefit the masses of
ordinary people rather than only the governing class
However, governments of industrial societies have largely become______________________ (government
by the wealthy).
1. The Protestant Reformation
2. The conquest of the New World
3. The Industrial Revolution
Three major causes led to the
emergence of democracy as the main form of government in industrialized nations:
T of F?
Industrialized nations defined by
democracy tend to be stable.
Agrarian societies were much more prone to____________________ compared to democratic industrialized societies.
False; Modern industrialized nations have a moreinclusive political process that involves
T or F?
Modern industrialized nations have a more exclusive political process that ignores marginalized groups.
1. The productivity and high standard of living in industrialized democracies gives the majority of the population a vested
interest in political stability.
2. A democratic ideology strengthens the allegiance of most segments of the population to their government and weakens support for revolutionary movements.
3. The complexity of the structure of
industrial societies generates a readiness to compromise on controversial issues.
Political stability corresponds with
industrialized democracies because:
The least stable governments exist in countries with a ___________________________ heritage.
E.g. Haiti, Uganda, Rwanda, and Liberia all have recurring conflicts among their population
is a problem that plagues many industrializing countries; Political exploitation coupled with minimal punishments lead to _______________ governments.
a government where
power is seized and held by an
results when a small group of individuals command power.
Dictators and oligarchies can be_____________________
(when the government exercises almost total control of a people).
The functionalist perspective states that _______________ defines the power structure in America
diffusion of power among interest
groups that prevents any single group from gaining
control of the government.
1. The executive branch (the president)
2. The judiciary branch (the courts)
3. The legislative branch (the Senate and House of Representatives)
Three branches of government maintain balance (USA):
C. Wright Mills believed that power in the U.S. was controlled by a ______________ _________ which represents the top figures of the government, military, and corporate sectors.
is a formal system of teaching knowledge, values, and
1. A system of formalized instruction (The more explicit the distinction btwn. an education system's two status positions (teacher and student), the more formally
organized the education system.)
2. An explicit curriculum
(As curricula of formalized instruction became more clearly defined, education was further differentiated as an institutional system.)
3. A pattern of ritualized passage
(As education became formalized, the following points of passage became ritualized: mandatory attendance, grading/exam proficiency, standardized degrees)
The institution of education evolved into the following:
In early societies, education was based on ____________________: the process by which society members learn their culture through informal socialization.
T or F?
Education provides both manifest (intended consequences) and latent functions (unintended consequences)
Education teaches necessary knowledge and skills.
Education assists in the cultural transmission of values.
Education operates as a mechanism of social
Education provides a form of gatekeeping
Education replaces traditional functions of kinship/family.
The functionalist perspective on education emphasizes
________________ theorists believe education
reproduces the social class structure; schools perpetuate social divisions of society and help members of the elite
to maintain their dominance.
The conflict perspective emphasizes the following:
Education systems contain a hidden _________________ (represent attitudes and unwritten rules of
behavior schools teach in addition to the formal ________________.)
The conflict perspective emphasizes...
Assessment techniques are biased toward the _________________ social class.
▪ E.g. IQ tests have been accused of discriminating against lower class individuals due to the nature of their
construction, for example...
▪ A symphony is to a composer as a book is to a(an) ____ .
The conflict perspective emphasizes...
The education system is unequal because ________________ varies dramatically from state to state.
What predicts college attendance more than other variables?
__________________________ found that college attendance was more a result of social class background than
A classic experiment by ______________
(1968) examined the effect of labeling on student performance:
School teachers were told which of their students would excel or struggle based on previous test scores (bogus as student
info was randomly determined).
Rosenthal assessed student performance at the end of the year and those students labeled as ___________________ tested significantly
higher than the "low" group.
Findings illustrate the ________________________ __________: the
self-fulfilling prophecy that occurs when students are labeled by teachers and thus
treated as if the labels are true.