Terms in this set (43)
When ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate, _____.
-the energy of the ATP molecule stays the same
-a large amount of energy is released
-energy is required
-a large amount of energy is consumed
a large amount of energy is released
When one molecule gains an electron from another, the molecule that received the electron has been _____.
In cellular respiration, glucose is _____ and oxygen is _____.
The high-energy electron carrier that is reduced during glycolysis, pyruvate processing, and the citric acid cycle, and which carries electrons to the electron transport system, is _____.
_____ is the three-carbon sugar that is produced as an end product of glycolysis.
The reactions of pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain occur within the _____ in the cell.
What molecule is produced in the citric acid cycle as a by-product of glucose oxidation and is subsequently released into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs, where it is removed from the body?
What job does the electron transport chain accomplish in order to drive the formation of ATP?
-The electron transport chain produces carbon dioxide, which in turn forms ATP.
-The proteins in the electron transport chain pump protons from the matrix of the mitochondria to the intermembrane space, thus establishing an electrochemical gradient.
-Electrons are released from oxygen and given to ATP, which forms ADP and inorganic phosphate.
-Carbon dioxide is used to produce acetyl CoA, which in turn donates electrons to ADP to drive the formation of ATP.
The proteins in the electron transport chain pump protons from the matrix of the mitochondria to the intermembrane space, thus establishing an electrochemical gradient.
At the end of cellular respiration, protons flow through a protein called _____, which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
What purpose does fermentation serve?
-It allows for the production of NADH, which keeps the electron transport chain going.
-It produces an abundance of ATP when oxygen is present.
-It regenerates NAD+ from NADH to keep glycolysis going in the absence of oxygen.
-Under aerobic conditions, it drives the formation of acetyl CoA, which then feeds into the citric acid cycle.
It regenerates NAD+ from NADH to keep glycolysis going in the absence of oxygen.
The reaction A --> B + C + heat is released in a(n) _____ reaction.
A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously.
-ATP --> ADP + P
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction?
-as spontaneous reactions, endergonic reactions do not need an addition of energy
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction.
-ADP + P --> ATP
-glucose + glucose --> maltose
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?
-It is acquired by a reactant in an exergonic reaction.
-It is used to convert an ATP into an AQP.
-It is acquired by a reactant in a spontaneous reaction.
-It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
-It is broken down into one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms.
It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
Select the INCORRECT association.
-potential energy ... positional energy
-exergonic ... spontaneous
-exergonic ... uphill
-enzyme ... protein
-kinetic energy ... motion
exergonic ... uphill
What is energy coupling?
-the use of an enzyme to reduce EA
-a barrier to the initiation of a reaction
-the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + P
-a description of the energetic relationship between the reactants and products in an exergonic reaction
-the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions?
-(the phosphate closest to ribose)
-(the middle phosphate)
-(the terminal phosphate)
(the terminal phosphate)
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
True or false? The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three phosphate groups.
Which process is not part of the cellular respiration pathway that produces large amounts of ATP in a cell?
-Electron transport chain
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
-Electron transport chain
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?
-Electrons gain energy as they move down the chain.
-Water is the last electron acceptor.
-The electron transport chain is the first step in cellular respiration.
-NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain.
NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain.
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
-Fermentation of pyruvate to lactate
-Electron transport and chemiosmosis
Electron transport and chemiosmosis
True or false? The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the mitochondria.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
-3 to 6
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
-acetyl CoA ... intermembrane space
-NADH ... intermembrane space
-NADH ... mitochondrial matrix
-NADH and FADH2 ... mitochondrial matrix
-NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
-NADH and FADH2
-kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
-NADH + H+
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
-NADH + H+
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.
-lactate, NADH, and ATP
-carbon dioxide, ethanol, NADH, and ATP
-lactate and NAD+
-carbon dioxide, ethanol, and NAD+
lactate and NAD+
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.
-NADH ... lactate
-NAD+ ... pyruvate
-lactate ... ethanol
-pyruvate ... NADH
-lactate ... NADH
pyruvate ... NADH