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Chaptr 17 & 18 of Science Spectrum Textbook 17.1 Electric Charge & Force (1-17) 17.2 Current 17.3 Circuits
Terms in this set (58)
Electric Charge
Can be positive (more protons than electrons)
or
Can be negative (more electrons than protons)
"Like Repels Like"
Positively charged objects repel positively charged objects (protons repel protons)
or
Negatively charged objects repel negatively charged objects (electrons repel electrons)
Oppositely Charged Objects Attract
Positively Charged Objects are Attracted to Negatively Charged Objects
(Protons & Electrons Attract each other)
Transfer of Electric Charge is by...
transfer of electrons..
Conductors
easily allow the transfer of electrons or electric charge
Conductor Examples
Metals (aluminum, copper, gold, iron, nickel, platinum, silver, titanium, etc)
Insulators
materials that do NOT easily transfer electrons or electric charge
Insulator Examples
Nonmetals (rubber, plastic, glass, air, water, wood, etc)
Types of Electric Charge (Electrons)Transfer:
Conduction (contact or friction)
Induction (close proximity)
Conduction by Contact
charged object (positive or negative) touches a neutral object
Conduction by Friction
Rubbing together two objects:
One object gains electrons (becomes negatively charged)
One object loses electrons (becomes positively charged)
Static Electricity
build up of charge on an object
Static Electricity Discharge
hazardous to electronics
dangerous at gasoline pumps
Induction
transfer of charge when a charged object comes NEAR to an insulator
Induction is caused by
polarization of atoms or molecules (temporary separation of charges within an object)
Electric Force -
force of attraction or repulsion on an object or particle due to an electric field.
Electric Field -
the 3-dimensional space surrounding an electrically charged object (where an electric force is experienced)
Electrical Potential Energy (EPE) -
the ability to move an electric charge from one place to another
Potential Difference -
voltage difference in potential between two points in a circuit
Units of Potential Difference -
Volts
Potential Difference =
Voltage
Voltage (V) -
movement of electric charges
Electrochemical Cells (Batteries)
Devises that produce electric current by changing chemical energy into electrical energy.
Positive and negative terminals (electrodes).
Wet (car batteries) or Dry (flashlights & other electronic devises).
Electric Current (I)
rate at which electric charges move through a wire or circuit.
Units of Current (I)
amperes ("amps")
Types of Current:
Alternating Current (AC) - used in all houses, businesses and schools
Direct Current (DC) - produced by batteries and generators
Resistance (R) -
opposition to the flow of current, caused by internal friction, slows the movement of electric charges through a wire or circuit.
Super Conductors - metals and other ceramic materials that have little or no resistance because of very low tempertatures
Conductors (metals) have low resistance.
Semi-Conductors (silicon & germanium) are used in computers and other electronic equipment
Insulators (plastic, rubber, glass) have high resistance.
Units of Resistance:
Ohms (Ω)
Ohm's Law:
Resistance = Voltage / Current
R = V / I
Re- arrange Ohm's Law equation to solve for Voltage:
V = R x I
Re- arrange Ohm's Law equation to solve for Current:
I = V / R
Electric Circuit -
electrical components (wire, battery, resistors,switches,etc) that provide a pathway for the movement of electric charges.
Open Circuit -
when the circuit is incomplete or interrupted.
Closed Circuit -
when the circuit is complete (no breaks)
Switch -
device that opens or closes a circuit
Battery -
a "pump" that moves electrons from the positive electrode to the negative electrode
Wire -
usually made of copper or aluminum encased in plastic or rubber; connects battery to all other components in an electric circuit
Series Circuit -
a single pathway that allows for the flow of electric current.
If one light or resistor goes out, then all lights or resistors go out.
Series Circuit Diagram:
Series Circuit (Schematic Diagram):
Parallel Circuit -
an electric circuit in which there are multiple pathways for electric current to flow.
If one light or resistor goes out, there is another pathway for the other lights of resistors to stay lit or working.
Parallel Circuit Diagram:
Parallel Circuit (Schematic Diagram):
Combination Circuit - contains both series and parallel circuits
Calculating Resistance in a Series Circuit:
The formula for calculating a total of n number of resistors wired in series is:
Total Resistance = R1+R2+....Rn
That is, all the series resistor values are simply added.
Calculating Resistance in a Parallel Circuit:
The equation for combining a total of n resistors in parallel is:
Total Resistance = 1/{(1/R1)+(1/R2)+(1/R3)..+(1/Rn)}
Here is an example, given R1 = 20Ω, R2 = 30Ω, and R3 = 30Ω.
Total Resistance = 1/{(1/20)+(1/30)+(1/30)}= 1/{(3/60)+(2/60)+(2/60)} = 1/(7/60)=60/7 Ω = approximately 8.57Ω.
"Resistance goes down in parallel"
Calculating Current in a Series Circuit:
current is equal through all components of a series circuit (the current flowing through each resistor in the circuit is the same).
Current = Voltage / Total Resistance (R₁+ R₂+ R₃etc)
Calculating Current in a Parallel Circuit:
add up the current flowing through each resistor in the circuit.
Total Current = V / R₁+ V / R₂+ V / R₃etc
Calculating Voltage in a Series Circuit:
In any series circuit, the SUM of the resistor voltage drops must equal the source voltage.
V₁= I / R₁ V₂= I / R₂ V₃= I / R₃etc
Total Voltage = V₁+ V₂+ V₃etc
Calculating Voltage in a Parallel Circuit:
the voltage through each resistor in a parallel circuit is the same.
Total Voltage = Total Current x Total Resistance = Voltage of the Source
Electric Power
the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy
Electric Power Equation:
current (in amps) x voltage (in volts) = Power (in watts)
Power (in watts) =
Amps x Volts
P =
I x V
Power equation rearranged:
P = I x V I = P / V V = P / I
P = (I²) x R
P = (V²) / R
1 Kilowatt (kW) =
1000 watts
Fuse -
electrical device that can interrupt the flow of electrical current when it is overloaded
Circuit Breaker -
a reusable safety switch that breaks the circuit when the current becomes too high. Usually found in groups inside of a panel in a central location of a house or commercial building.
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