76 terms

psych 100

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incentive theory
Proposes that we are often motivated by positive goals
affective foreasting
the ability to predict our own and others happiness; good at forecasting happiness, but not well at predicting durability bias- ex. How long it will last
gestures
Illustrator- emphasis
Manipulators- stress
Emblems- culturally specific
facial expressions
seven main emotions and you combine them together to create all the emotions
James-Lange theory of emotion
theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli (we are afraid because we run away)
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
theory proposing that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions (the sight of that bear triggers being afraid and running at the same time)
two-factor theory of emotion
theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution of that arousal (get aroused by the bear preparing us to fight.)
polygraphs
not that effective. Very good at giving false positives. Good at measuring increased heartrate, and blood pressure
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon in which repeated exposure to a stimulus makes us more likely to feel favorably toward it. If you don't like a specific group of people, but you choose to spend a lot of time with them, then you will over time start to like them more.
heirarchy of needs
Some things take precedence over others. Primary (biological) and secondary (psychological)- physiological needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs, self- actualization
defensive pessimism
Strategy of anticipating failure and compensation of this expectation by mentally over-preparing for negative outcomes (thinking of everything that could go wrong at all times
public
12 feet or more
social
4-12 feet
personal
1.5 - 4 feet
intimate
0-1.5 feet
intrinsically motivated
going for you own personal knowledge
extrinsically motivated
going for the grades, external reward
adler
believed people tried to achieve superiority (style of life) and believed some people were prone to an inferiority complex
jung
believed there was a collective unconscious and that it contained many archetypes
freud
believed that we pass through stages each of which is focused on an erogenous zone. Sexuality begins in infancy, individuals may get fixated in a stage and have difficulty moving on.
feelings of incongruence
When you deviate from the path towards self-actualization, then you get the feeling of incongruence or when you don't feel like you are being yourself. Unconsciousness feeling
regression
motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses
denial
motivated forgetting of distressing experiences
projection
unconscious attribution of our negative qualities to others
id
pleasure principle
ego
reality principle
superego
morals
projective personality test
Some criticisms are unfalsifiable; failed predictions; questionable conception of unconscious; unrepresentative samples; emphasis on shared environment
big five model
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
genes
DNA from parent
shared environment
common to siblings raised together
non-shared environment
- unique to the individual
reciprocal determinism
tendency for people to mutually influence each other's behavior
MMPI-2
567 true-false questions; 10 basic scales
mood disorder
- Major depressive disorder (MDD); bipolar disorder-both depressive and manic episodes; suicide
personality disorders
borderline personality disorder; autism spectrum disorders
anxiety disorders
somatic symptom disorder; illness anxiety disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; Panic disorder; phobias; PTSD; OCD
bipolar disorder
genetic. It exists with both depressive and manic episodes. It is equally common in men and women, and also produces serious problems in social and occupational realms.
myths about suicide
Talking to persons with depression about suicide often makes them more likely to commit the act; is almost always completed with no warning; as a severe depression lifts, people's suicide risk decreases; most people who threaten suicide are seeking attention; people who talk a lot about suicide almost never commit it.
criteria for mental illness
Statistical rarity; subject distress; impairment; social disapproval; biological disfuntion
delusions
strongly held, fixed beliefs with no basis in reality
hallucinations
- sensory perceptions in the absence of external stimuli
obsessions
persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate and cause marked distress
compulsions
repetitive behaviors or mental acts
impacted brain receptor sites
Enlarged ventricles; increased sulci (spaces between the ridges of the brain) size, hypofrontality: frontal lobes are less active; neurotransmitter differences in dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, and serotonin
cognitive model of depression
holds that depression is caused by negative beliefs and expectations
cognitive triad
Cognitive triad, negative schemas, cognitive distortions
person-centered therapy
encourages clients to direct the course of their therapy; therapist must be authentic, genuine, express unconditional positive regard, show emphatic understanding; ideally causes people to think more realistically, become more tolerant of others, engage in more adaptive behaviors
family therapy
has therapist immerse herself in the family to make changes
cognitive-behavioral therapies
cognitions are identifiable and measurable; cognitions are key in both healthy and unhealthy psychological functioning; irrational beliefs or thinking can be replaced by more rational and adaptive cognitions
exposure therapies
confronts clients with what they fear with the goal of reducing fear
systematic desensitization
clients are taught to relax as they are gradually exposed to what they fear in a stepwise manner
flooding
expose clients to images of the stimuli they fear the most for prolonged periods often over an hour
psychodynamic therapies
believe that abnormal behaviors stem from adverse childhood experiences; symptoms will vanish when clients gain insight into unconscious material
cognitive behavioral therapy
tries to assist clients with accepting and being mindful of and attuned to all aspects of their experience including thoughts, feelings, memories, and physical sensations.
rational emotive therapy
emphasises on changing how we think, but also focuses on changing how we act
spontaneous remission
When you randomly get better which was not related at all to the treatment
placebo effect
Giving someone a fake pill to see what the real symptoms are
retrospective rewriting of the past
You believe that you have improved even when you haven't because you incorrectly remember your initial level of adjustment as worse than it was.
dodo bird effect
"all have won, and all must have prizes"
group think
An emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking
fundamental attribution error
When we look at others' behavior we overestimate impact of dispositional influences; underestimate impact of situational influences.
social conformity
is the tendency of other people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure. Unanimity increased conformity; lower conformity if only one other person differed from the majority; size of majority up to five or six people makes a difference.
deindividuation
The tendency of people to engage in a typical behavior when stripped of their usual identity. Wearing masks and concealing identity encourages deindividuation.
stereotype
belief positive or negative about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of a group
prejudice
drawing negative conclusions prior to evaluating the evidence
social loafing
Refers to people's tendency to slack off in groups
in-group bias
This means that we favor those within our group over those outside it
out-group homogeneity
Is the tendency to view people outside of our group as highly similar
cognitive dissonance
Unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs.
door in the face
starts big then backs off
low ball technique
starts with a low price, then "add on" all the desirable options
but you are free
technique-convince someone to perform a favor for us by telling them that they are free not to do it.
foot in the door
start off small and work you way up
culture of honor
A social norm of defending one's own reputation in the face of perceived insults
increased obedience
Perception of authority; morality; authoritarianism; psychological distance; greater the distance between teacher and learner; milgrim experiment- student of dr. ash