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Eldon has just finished his essay test and handed it in. As he walks out of the classroom, he realizes that there were a few more things he should have included in the essay. Eldon's problem is in the memory of ___.


When Edie studies her psychology terms, she tries to tie each concept in to something she already knows. She thinks about the meaning of the concept rather than just saying the words over and over. Which model of memory would best explain Edie's approach to encoding memories?

levels of processing model

Long ago, when a television set was turned off it took awhile for the last image that was on the screen to fade away. This is most like __.

iconic memory

Which type of memory is used to keep the flow of conversation going by allowing a person to remember what was just said?

echoic memory

Fethia learned her multiplication facts by repeating them over and over until she had them memorized. Fethia was using what kind of rehearsal?


of the following, which is the most similar to the concept of long term memory?

a filing cabinet

Long term memories are encoded in terms of

sounds, visual images, and meaning of words and concepts

in the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? contestants are asked a series of questions of general information, although of increasing difficulty. The type of memory needed to access the answers to these kinds of questions is ___.


The Internet, with its series of links from one site to many others, is a good analogy for the organization of ___.

long term memory

The best place to take your math exam to ensure good retrieval of math concepts is in ___

the math classroom

Sarah can remeber names of the first two people she was introduced to at Ted's party, and she can remember the name of the last person she met, but the names of the dozen or so people in between are gone. This is an example of the ___.

serial position effect

This quiz question, as well as the other quiz questions, makes use of which form of retrieval or memories?


Which of the following statements about Loftus's classic study is TRUE?

subjects either increased or decreased the number of demonstrators in an attempt to compromise their memory with the later false information

Which of the following statements about flashbulb memories is FALSE?

they are usually accurate

The phenomenon of hindsight bias is an example of the ___ of long-term memory retrieval.

constructive processing view

In Loftus's 1978 study, subjects viewed a slide presentation of an accident. Later, some of the subjects were asked a question about a yield sign. When these subject were asked a question about a yield sign when the actual slides contained pictures of a stop sign. When these same subjects were later asked about what kind of sign was at the accident , they were very likely to be confused in this situation. This is an example of the ___.

misinformation effect

Which of the following statements about memory retrieval while under hypnosis is TRUE?

people recalling memories under hypnosis are more confident in their memories, regardless of accuracy.

Pezdek and colleagues found that for a person to interpret thought and fantasies about false events as true memories ___.

the event must seem as plausible as possible

Salvatore was introduced to a number of new people on his first day at his new job. According to Ebbinghaus, when should Salvatore expect to have forgotten the greatest number of the names he has just learned?

within the first hour after learning the names

When a person "forgets" what someone has just said because he wasn't paying attention to the speaker at all, it is an example of the ___ explanation of forgetting.

encoding failure

Edna took sociology in the fall semester and is now taking psychology. Some of the concepts are similar, and edna finds that she sometimes has trouble recalling some of the major sociology theorists. She keeps getting them confused with psychology theorists. Edna's problem is most likely due to ___.

retroactive interference

Brian went from the US, where he grew up, to England. The first week he was there, he had a terrible time remembering to drive on the left side of the road. His problem was most likely due to ___.

proactive interference

Katherine is trying to hold the names of the students she just met in her psychology class in short-term memory. According to studies, these short-term memories will be stored in what part of the brain?

prefrontal lobes

Research suggests that memory formation is a function of ___.

changes in the number of receptor sites, sensitivity of the synapse, the dendrites and proteins within neurons

The role of the ___ in the formation of new long term memories was first made apparent in the case of H.M., a fanous amnesiac.


T.J. was in a car accident and suffered a concussion. After he recovered, he found that he could not remember the accident itself or the events of the morning leading up to the accident. T.J. had which kind of amnesia?


Memory can be described as ___.

an active system that encodes, stores, and retrieves

In the ___ model of memory, memories are simultaneously created and stored across a mental network.

parallel distributed processing model

Roberta looked up from her book, realizing that Joaquin had just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he had just asked her if she wanted to go out to dinner. Roberta's ability to retrieve what Joaquin said is due to her ___.

echoic sensory memory

Although Sperling found evidence that iconic memory lasts about half a second, in reality information gets pushed out rather quickly by newer information. Evidence suggests that iconic memory really lasts about ___ of a second.

one quarter

The duration of echoic memory is ___ than iconic memory, but its capacity is probably ___.

longer; smaller

When Greg tried to remember the name of his employer's husband, he had trouble getting the name right. At first he thought it might be Sandy or Candy but finally realized that it was Mandy. Greg's confusion is evidence that short term memories are primarily encoded in ___ form.


Although the capacity of short term memory is limited, more items can be held in this kind of storage through the process of ___.


The best method for encoding long term memories is probably to use ___.

elaborative rehearsal

The levels of processing concept of Craik and Lockhart would suggest that which of the following a questions would lead to better memory of the word frog?

would it be found in the pond

Which type of long term memory is revised and updated more or less constantly?


Knowledge that we gain from school is called ___ memory.


The semantic network model of memory would suggest that which of the following questions would take longest to answer?

is a collie an animal

The research of Eich and Metcalf would suggest that if you were really angry when you were learning Spanish, you should be ___ when taking the final exam for best retrieval.


Which of the following is NOT an example of a test using recall?


The serial position effect predicts that the information that will be remembered best from a list will come at the ___ of the list.

beginning and the end

Melanie was having a difficult time describing the man who took her purse in the mall parking lot. The officer showed her some pictures of people who had been involved in similar crimes, and she was quickly able to point out the right man. Melanie's situation is a reminder that in comparing recognition to recall, recognition tends to be ___.


Is eyewitness testimony usually acccurate?

No, because there is great possibility of a "false positive" identification

The passage of time and frequency of events are examples of knowledge that is often subject to ___.

constructive processing

Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten ___.

quickly at first, then tapering off gradually

A problem with using decay or disuse theory to explain forgetting from long term memory is that ___.

older people can still remember things from their early years

You started out by using WordPerfect and then moved to Microsoft Word because your company demanded that all documents be in Word. If you have trouble with Word, it is most likely due to ___.

proactive interference

The main type of memory problem that people with dementia, including Alzheimer's, typically have is called ___.

antegrade amnesia

One theory that explains infantile amnesia states that these memories are ___.

implicit and not retrievable consciously

Gingko biloba extract is supposed to help memory because it ___.

increases the flow of blood to the brain

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