40 terms

reproduction

STUDY
PLAY
gametes
sex cells
homologous chromosome
two chromosomes, one inherited from mom, and one inherited by dad, that are similar in length and appearance
autosomes
chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that directly control the development of sexual chaacyeristics
fertilization
fusion of an egg and a sperm
diploid
a cell having 2 copies of each chromosome - one from mom and one from dad
haploid
a cell has one copy of each chromosome
meiosis
form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells
gametogenesis
production of gametes
sperm
male gamete
egg
femaile gamete
polar bodies
cells with little for dna that are eventually broken down
follicle
helps egg mature
ovulation
release of egg from ovary
menstrual cycle
series of monthly changes in the reproductive system that include producing and releasing an egg and preparing the uterus to receive it
endometrium
detaches from the uterine wall and passes through the vagina to the outside of the body
corpus luteum
releases estrogen and another hormone, progesterone, which limits production of LH
menopause
the cycle gradually becomes more and more irregular and finally sotps alltogether
infertility
any condition that makes reproduction difficult or impossible
zygote
23 chromosomes of the sperm join with the 23 chromosome of the egg to form a fertilized egg
STD
diseases passed from one person to another during sexual contact
blastocyst
hollow ball of cells
embryo
ball of cells
amniotic sac
one membrane, the amnion, that becomes filled with fluid
placenta
connects mother and embryo to allow the exchange oxygen, nutrients, and waste between them
umbilical cord
two arteries and a vein that are twisted together
trimesters
three periods of roughly three months each
fetus
the embryo at 3 weeks that is riughly 3 cm
reproductive system
collection of special organs, glands, and hormones that help produce a new human being
Puberty
time in your life when your hypothalamus and pituitary gland release hormones
ovum
egg
ovaries
paired organs on either side of the uterus
unerus
womb
estrogen
steroid hormone that has 3 main functions
fallopian tube
organ about 10 cm long that ends in the uterus
testes
paired organs that contain sperm
testosterone
steroid hormone, that along with FSH, stimulates production of sperm
scrotum
pouch that hangs below the pelvis outside the body
semen
fluids from all 3 glands, sperm, that form a milky white substance
epididymis
long coiled tube