23 terms

Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 14

Ch. 14- Human Heredity
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Terms in this set (...)

genome
the full set of genetic information that an organism carries in it's DNA
karyotype
an array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells at metaphase of mitosis and arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
sex chromosomes
one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual
autosomes
chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual; the remaining 44 chromosomes
sex-linked genes
A gene located on a sex chromosome.
pedigree
chart that shows the relationships within a family
the y chromosome
what determines whether a person is a male or female
by the number and shape of chromosomes
how karyotypes can be used to identify a species
a pedigree
what shows the presence or abscence of traits within a family
thousands
how many genetic disorders are there
nondisjunction
not coming apart
sex chromosome disorders
Turners Syndrome, Klinefelters Syndrome, and Down Syndrome
Turner's Syndrome
a female with only 1 x chromosome; usually sterile
Klinefelter's syndrome
a male with an extra x chromosome; usually sterile
Down Syndrome
three copies of chromosome 21
cystic fibrosis
disorder where there is a deletion of three bases causing the loss of phenylalanine
trisomy
3 chromosomes instead of 2
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
law that protects people from being discriminated against because of information derived from genetic tests
restriction enzymes
enzymes that cut DNA molecules into precise pieces, called restriction fragments
metaphase
what phase of mitosis a karyotype shows
shotgun sequencing
sequencing short pieces of DNA and then use a computer ro find overlapping sequences that map to a much longer DNA fragment
3 billion
the human genome consists of how many base pairs
gel electrophoresis
the technique used to separate DNA strands of different lengths
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