- a barberpole worm - a strongyle parasite whose principal site of infection is the ABOMASUM - leakage of blood and protein
Clinical signs of Haemonchosis
- Weight loss - Lethargy - Anemia and hypoproteinemia - +/- diarrhea
Trichostrongyles and Ostertagia (Telodorsagia) clinical signs
- Bottle jaw - Weight loss and diarrhea - Normal TPR - WILL EAT
Telodorsagia life cycle
- Eggs in feces - L1-L3 (7-10 days) - L3 climbs on vegetation - L4, L5 and adults in abomasum - Eggs passed- 21 days post ingestion
Haemonchus, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongyles can all what?
- Overwinter: through hypobiosis or survive on pasture
Diagnostics for Haemonchus, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongyles
- Fecal float - McMasters
Treatment for internal parasites
- Strategic de-worming: 3-4x 3 weeks apart starting at the time of turn-out to pasture. Do 10 day post treatment exam for FEC - Anthelminics: IVM/mox, Levamisole, Benzimidazoles
80% of the worms are in __ of the sheep
20% - LEAVE A POPULATION
Where are liver flukes?
- Pacific NW - Gulf states * need snail*
Clinical signs of liver flukes
- Weight loss - Lethargy - Anemia - Ascities - Edema and icterus
What can predispose sheep to additional problems such as Black's disease (C. novyi)
- Liver flukes
Diagnosis of LIver flukes
- Sedimentation or screening of feces for eggs - dot-ELISA - ascities, icterus, and edema - migration tracts through the liver with necrotic foci - fibrosis of the liver and hyperplasia of the biliary tree
Treatment of liver flukes
- Clorsulon (with IVM) Curatrem or IVM plus - ALB * Prevent, flukecides and control of snails
Agent in caseous lymphadenitis
- Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a G+ coccobacillus
Transmission of CLA
- through direct contact with exudate - through shearing (sheep) - head trauma or oral abrasions (goat)
Clinical signs of CLA
- external abscesses, especially LN - Weight loss and inappetance - Resp. problems - Repro failure: poor condition or abscesses at the scrotum - ROUGHLY 2/3 ABSCESSES ARE INTERNAL!!
Diagnostics of CLA
- laminar appearance on cross section in sheep - goat abscesses: less laminar in appearance and often have greener color than sheep
What is the synergistic hemolysis inhibition test?
- Test developed using antigens from R. equi (C. equi), and C. pseudotuberculosis - Look for presence of exotoxin: titers of 1:512 (internal abscess) - titers of > 1:4 indicate exposure
Treatment of CLA
- flush the abscess capsule vigorously and express all contents - Swab the remaining capsule lining with strong iodien to "cauterize" - Make sure the incision is large enough to remain open for several days - Cover with penicillin: don't want dissemination to other sites
Agent in paratuberculosis or Johne's disease
- Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis * acid-fast * infections in all ruminant species
Types of strains in paratuberculosis
- sheep strain - cattle strain - goast get BOTH
Clinical signs of Johne's disease
- usually 1-3 years old (different than cattle) - loose stool - weight loss despite normal appetite - bottle jaw
Diagnostic testing for Johne's disease
- Fecal culture: Herrold's egg yolk media and broth culture system - Serologic testing: ELISA, AGID, Complement fixation
Pathology of Johne's disease
- gross: emaciation, thickened ileum and colon, enlarged mesenteric lymphatics and LN - microscopic: granulomatous inflammation, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, acid-fast organisms
Treatment of CLA
- NO treatments - best control is NEVER have a problem: don't buy from auction barns or none infected, feed colostrum from negatives
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus is a
- lentivirus of the retroviridae family
Transmission and signs of CAE
- most infections acquired through NURSING colostrum and milk from infected dams - Arthritis signs typically appear after 2 years, but have been seen in goats > 6 months
Where does CAE go?
- Arthritis/synovial membranes - Leukoencephalomyelitis (< 4 m) - Replaces secretory tissue: poor milk production but not mastitis - Occipital bursitis
How many positive for CAE goats develop clinical signs?
Treatment and control of CAE
- Palliative treatment with anti-inflammatories may be beneficial short term - Control is based on preventing ingestion of infected colostrum
How do you treat colostrum before adminstration?
- Heat to 133F for 1 hour, continue to treat until weaned - Use colostrum from only negative does
Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus is
- antigenically similar to CAE virus (lentivirus)
Transmission of OPP
- Acquired in similar way to CAE - Horizontal transmission - Prolonged incubation = adults are affected - Same organs as CAEV
Clinical signs of OPPV
- Progressive resp. deterioration, most commonly seen after 3 years - weight loss, good appetite - Replacement of glandular tissue in mammary gland by lymphocytic infiltrate - Less commonly, arthritis and joint swellings
What is indurative mastitis and where do we see it?
- Normal milk, decreased volume - IN OPP ewes
What causes quick wear of incisors in sheep and goats?
- block salt, sandy soil
What is step mouth?
- when there is a loss of an opposing molar/premolar
Clinical signs of dental problems
- Weight loss - Excessive salivation - Dropping the cud - Pouching of the cheek
Abomasal emptying defect clinical signs
- Age: > 1year - Gradual weight loss, often inapparent until shorn - Abdominal distension - Interest in feed but NOT EATING - Passing normal pelleted feces
Diagnosis of AED
- Collect rumen chloride: normal < 15mEq/L and look for elevation - ULS the right paramedian area to show distended abomasum - Perform an exploratory laparatomy
Physical findings of AED
- NORMAL TPR for most, INCREASED HR - Variable rumen activity, often hypermotility - Variable degree of ventral abdominal distention - Palpable firm viscus in the right paramedian area - Animals continue to pass feces
What do you do with an AED?
- Prognosis is guarded to poor - Pro-motility drugs such as metoclopramide - Intestinal lubricants and fecal softeners (DSS) - Surgical emptying via rumenotomy or abomasotomy
Post mortem findings in AED
- obvious weight loss with DISTENTION of the abomasum - can be larger than rumen - more in abomasal body with a relatively normal pyloric portion (NOT IMPACTED HERE)
- Adults deposit larva to nasal mucosa - Larva migrate into passages and access sinuses (inflammation and edema) - Larva leave host and pupate in debris and soil before becoming adults - Adults live about 4 weeks and DO NOT FEED. They mate and deposit new larva