Quiz 4: Weight loss conditions in sheep and goats

Most common cause of weight loss in adult SR
- Parasitism
Most important internal parasites are:
- Haemonchus contortus
- Trichostrongyles
- Ostertagia
- Liver flukes
Haemonchosis is
- a barberpole worm
- a strongyle parasite whose principal site of infection is the ABOMASUM
- leakage of blood and protein
Clinical signs of Haemonchosis
- Weight loss
- Lethargy
- Anemia and hypoproteinemia
- +/- diarrhea
Trichostrongyles and Ostertagia (Telodorsagia) clinical signs
- Bottle jaw
- Weight loss and diarrhea
- Normal TPR
Telodorsagia life cycle
- Eggs in feces
- L1-L3 (7-10 days)
- L3 climbs on vegetation
- L4, L5 and adults in abomasum
- Eggs passed- 21 days post ingestion
Haemonchus, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongyles can all what?
- Overwinter: through hypobiosis or survive on pasture
Diagnostics for Haemonchus, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongyles
- Fecal float
- McMasters
Treatment for internal parasites
- Strategic de-worming: 3-4x 3 weeks apart starting at the time of turn-out to pasture. Do 10 day post treatment exam for FEC
- Anthelminics: IVM/mox, Levamisole, Benzimidazoles
80% of the worms are in __ of the sheep
Where are liver flukes?
- Pacific NW
- Gulf states
* need snail*
Clinical signs of liver flukes
- Weight loss
- Lethargy
- Anemia
- Ascities
- Edema and icterus
What can predispose sheep to additional problems such as Black's disease (C. novyi)
- Liver flukes
Diagnosis of LIver flukes
- Sedimentation or screening of feces for eggs
- dot-ELISA
- ascities, icterus, and edema
- migration tracts through the liver with necrotic foci
- fibrosis of the liver and hyperplasia of the biliary tree
Treatment of liver flukes
- Clorsulon (with IVM) Curatrem or IVM plus
* Prevent, flukecides and control of snails
Agent in caseous lymphadenitis
- Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a G+ coccobacillus
Transmission of CLA
- through direct contact with exudate
- through shearing (sheep)
- head trauma or oral abrasions (goat)
Clinical signs of CLA
- external abscesses, especially LN
- Weight loss and inappetance
- Resp. problems
- Repro failure: poor condition or abscesses at the scrotum
Diagnostics of CLA
- laminar appearance on cross section in sheep
- goat abscesses: less laminar in appearance and often have greener color than sheep
What is the synergistic hemolysis inhibition test?
- Test developed using antigens from R. equi (C. equi), and C. pseudotuberculosis
- Look for presence of exotoxin: titers of 1:512 (internal abscess)
- titers of > 1:4 indicate exposure
Treatment of CLA
- flush the abscess capsule vigorously and express all contents
- Swab the remaining capsule lining with strong iodien to "cauterize"
- Make sure the incision is large enough to remain open for several days
- Cover with penicillin: don't want dissemination to other sites
Agent in paratuberculosis or Johne's disease
- Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
* acid-fast
* infections in all ruminant species
Types of strains in paratuberculosis
- sheep strain
- cattle strain
- goast get BOTH
Clinical signs of Johne's disease
- usually 1-3 years old (different than cattle)
- loose stool
- weight loss despite normal appetite
- bottle jaw
Diagnostic testing for Johne's disease
- Fecal culture: Herrold's egg yolk media and broth culture system
- Serologic testing: ELISA, AGID, Complement fixation
Pathology of Johne's disease
- gross: emaciation, thickened ileum and colon, enlarged mesenteric lymphatics and LN
- microscopic: granulomatous inflammation, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, acid-fast organisms
Treatment of CLA
- NO treatments
- best control is NEVER have a problem: don't buy from auction barns or none infected, feed colostrum from negatives
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus is a
- lentivirus of the retroviridae family
Transmission and signs of CAE
- most infections acquired through NURSING colostrum and milk from infected dams
- Arthritis signs typically appear after 2 years, but have been seen in goats > 6 months
Where does CAE go?
- Arthritis/synovial membranes
- Leukoencephalomyelitis (< 4 m)
- Replaces secretory tissue: poor milk production but not mastitis
- Occipital bursitis
How many positive for CAE goats develop clinical signs?
- 15-20%
Treatment and control of CAE
- Palliative treatment with anti-inflammatories may be beneficial short term
- Control is based on preventing ingestion of infected colostrum
How do you treat colostrum before adminstration?
- Heat to 133F for 1 hour, continue to treat until weaned
- Use colostrum from only negative does
Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus is
- antigenically similar to CAE virus (lentivirus)
Transmission of OPP
- Acquired in similar way to CAE
- Horizontal transmission
- Prolonged incubation = adults are affected
- Same organs as CAEV
Clinical signs of OPPV
- Progressive resp. deterioration, most commonly seen after 3 years
- weight loss, good appetite
- Replacement of glandular tissue in mammary gland by lymphocytic infiltrate
- Less commonly, arthritis and joint swellings
What is indurative mastitis and where do we see it?
- Normal milk, decreased volume
- IN OPP ewes
What causes quick wear of incisors in sheep and goats?
- block salt, sandy soil
What is step mouth?
- when there is a loss of an opposing molar/premolar
Clinical signs of dental problems
- Weight loss
- Excessive salivation
- Dropping the cud
- Pouching of the cheek
Abomasal emptying defect clinical signs
- Age: > 1year
- Gradual weight loss, often inapparent until shorn
- Abdominal distension
- Interest in feed but NOT EATING
- Passing normal pelleted feces
Diagnosis of AED
- Collect rumen chloride: normal < 15mEq/L and look for elevation
- ULS the right paramedian area to show distended abomasum
- Perform an exploratory laparatomy
Physical findings of AED
- Variable rumen activity, often hypermotility
- Variable degree of ventral abdominal distention
- Palpable firm viscus in the right paramedian area
- Animals continue to pass feces
What do you do with an AED?
- Prognosis is guarded to poor
- Pro-motility drugs such as metoclopramide
- Intestinal lubricants and fecal softeners (DSS)
- Surgical emptying via rumenotomy or abomasotomy
Post mortem findings in AED
- obvious weight loss with DISTENTION of the abomasum
- can be larger than rumen
- more in abomasal body with a relatively normal pyloric portion (NOT IMPACTED HERE)
Keratoconjunctivitis/pinkeye is caused by
- Irritation (individual): dust, plant awns, entropion, allergy
- Infectious (group):
* sheep: chlamydophila, Mycoplasma conjunctivae
* Goats: chlamydophila, Mycoplasma conjunctivae
Clinical signs of keratoconjunctivitis
- Lacrimation
- Blepharospasms
- Graying of the cornea or development of hypopeon
Diagnosis and treatment of pinkeye
- Close exam of lids and 3rd eyelid for FB
- Swab and culture of conjunctival secretions
- Txt with either local or systemic tetracycline: ointments at least 2x/day. LA 200
With recurring bouts of pinkeye there is likely an
- asymptomatic carrier
- Secretions on feeding bunks, flies, or direct contact between infected and susceptible animals
Etiology of nasal adenocarcinoma in sheep
- Not definitively determined
- a viral etiology is proposed based on endemic problems
Clinical signs of Nasal adenocarcinoma in sheep
- Gradual onset of resp. dyspnea
- Weight loss
Physical findings of nasal adenocarcinomas
- dyspnea is inspiratory in nature: noisy
- diminished airflow from one or both nares
- often see increased nasal mucus secretion
Diagnostics of nasal adenocarcinoma
- Rad of head
- Endoscopy of nasal passages
- CT
- Perform tracheotomy before procedure if severe dyspnea
Treatment and prognosis of nasal adenocarcinoma
- Surgical removal of the ethmoid turbinates through a dorsal incision
- Prognosis: probable recurrence in 2 years or less
Etiology of nasal bots
- Oestrus ovis
Clinical signs of nasal bots
- Sneezing
- Copious nasal d/c
- inspiratory dyspnea and stridor
Life cycle of nasal bots
- Adults deposit larva to nasal mucosa
- Larva migrate into passages and access sinuses (inflammation and edema)
- Larva leave host and pupate in debris and soil before becoming adults
- Adults live about 4 weeks and DO NOT FEED. They mate and deposit new larva
Treatment of nasal bots
- Organophophates