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FINAL EXAM Bio 121- Chapter 4
Terms in this set (42)
Which theory states that all living things are composed of cells?
Plants are susceptible to bacterial infections, which can damage their structure or even kill them. Which of the following would be the best antibiotic to treat a plant that is infected with bacteria?
a drug that blocks gene expression in circular chromosomes
When using a microscope to view cells you obtained from scraping under your fingernails, you notice that the cells lack nuclei; therefore, you conclude that the cells must be a type of ________ cell.
You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude that it is likely to be a(n) ________ cell.
Which of the following is a feature of prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells?
One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells ______ prokaryotic cells.
have membrane-enclosed structures called organelles, which are lacking in
In eukaryotic cells, what name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane?
Which of the following is a function of the plasma membrane?
regulate the traffic of chemicals in and out of the cell
________ are the major lipids of plasma membranes.
The extracellular matrix of animal cells ________.
protects and support cells
When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.
have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water
The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.
phospholipids and most proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane
The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ________.
______ store the information necessary to produce proteins.
The nuclear envelope is composed of ______.
a double membrane
Most human cells contain ______ chromosomes.
Which of the following structures manufactures the components of ribosomes?
Some ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol of a cell, whereas other ribosomes _______.
are attached to the outside of the nucleus
Where does protein synthesis take place?
Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via ______.
The endomembrane system includes ________.
Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum
A hormone that will be secreted from a cell is manufactured by ribosomes ________.
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include ________.
lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification
Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?
Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ________.
cell wall and a central vacuole
Cells in the thyroid gland produce and secrete thyroid hormone (a polymer of amino acids) that helps to regulate metabolism. What organelle is most likely abundant in cells of the thyroid gland?
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.
What structures move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus?
Which of the following parts of a cell is (are) most like the shipping center of a company?
the Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes are responsible for ______.
digestion of organic matter inside the cell
If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.
Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme.
Vacuoles are ______.
A protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______.
in fresh water
In plant cells, ______ may contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons.
Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ________.
stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP
Which of the following is an adaptation to increase the surface area of a part of a cell that is involved in cellular respiration?
the cristae of a mitochondrion
During a race such as a marathon, the skeletal muscle cells in your legs use a lot of energy to continually contract and power your muscles. What organelle is most likely abundant in skeletal muscle cells?
Similar to the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria are ________.
surrounded by two membranes
Which plant organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?
Microtubules are associated with ________.
***all of the answer choices
Tobacco smokers (and those exposed to tobacco smoke) are at greater risk of an ectopic (tubal) pregnancy. Based on your understanding of the structures of the cytoskeleton, what is the BEST explanation?
Tobacco interferes with the sweeping motion of cilia that aids in the movement of the egg toward the uterus.