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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 7 Learning Objectives
Terms in this set (18)
What does management look like today?
At one time, managers were called bosses, and their job consisted of telling people what to do, watching over them to be sure they did it, and reprimanding those who didn't. Many, if not most, managers still behave that way. Today, however, some managers tend to be more progressive. For example, they emphasize teams and team building; they create drop-in centers, team spaces, and open work areas. They tend to guide, train, support, motivate, and coach employees rather than tell them what to do.
What reasons can you give to account for changes in management?
Leaders of Fortune 100 companies today tend to be younger, more of them are female, and fewer of them were educated at elite universities. They know that many of their employees know more about technology and other practices than they do. Therefore, they tend to put more emphasis on motivation, teamwork, and cooperation. Managers in the future are likely to be assuming completely new roles in the firm. For one thing, they will be taking a leadership role in adapting to climate change. Further, they'll be doing more expansion overseas.
What are the primary functions of management?
The four primary functions are (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) leading, and (4) controlling.
How do you define each of these functions?
Planning includes anticipating trends and determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Organizing includes designing the structure of the organization and creating conditions and systems in which everyone and everything works together to achieve the organization's goals and objectives. Leading means creating a vision for the organization, and communicating, guiding, training, coaching, and motivating others to achieve goals and objectives. Controlling means measuring whether what actually occurs meets the organization's goals.
What's the difference between goals and objectives?
Goals are broad, long-term achievements that organizations aim to accomplish, whereas objectives are specific, short-term plans made to help reach the goals.
What is a SWOT analysis?
Managers look at the strengths and weaknesses of the firm and the opportunities and threats facing it.
What are the four types of planning, and how are they related to the organization's goals and objectives?
Strategic planning is broad, long-range planning that outlines the goals of the organization. Tactical planning is specific, short-term planning that lists organizational objectives. Operational planning is part of tactical planning and sets specific timetables and standards. Contingency planning is developing an alternative set of plans in case the first set doesn't work out.
What are the steps involved in decision making?
The six Ds of decision making are (1) define the situation; (2) describe and collect needed information; (3) develop alternatives; (4) decide which alternative is best; (5) do what is indicated (begin implementation); and (6) determine whether the decision was a good one, and follow up.
What are the three levels of management in the corporate hierarchy?
The three levels of management are (1) top management (highest level consisting of the president and other key company executives who develop strategic plans); (2) middle management (general managers, division managers, and plant managers who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling); and (3) supervisory management (first-line managers/supervisors who evaluate workers' daily performance).
What skills do managers need?
Managers must have three categories of skills: (1) technical skills (ability to perform specific tasks such as selling products or developing software), (2) human relations skills (ability to communicate and motivate), and (3) conceptual skills (ability to see organizations as a whole and how all the parts fit together).
Are these skills equally important at all management levels?
Managers at different levels need different skills. Top managers rely heavily on human relations and conceptual skills and rarely use technical skills, while first-line supervisors need strong technical and human relations skills but use conceptual skills less often. Middle managers need to have a balance of all three skills (see Figure 7.5).
What's the difference between a manager and a leader?
A manager plans, organizes, and controls functions within an organization. A leader has vision and inspires others to grasp that vision, establishes corporate values, emphasizes corporate ethics, and doesn't fear change.
Describe the various leadership styles.
Figure 7.6 shows a continuum of leadership styles ranging from boss-centered to subordinate-centered leadership.
Which leadership style is best?
The most effective leadership style depends on the people being led and the situation. The challenge of the future will be to empower self-managed teams.
What does empowerment mean?
Empowerment means giving employees the authority and responsibility to respond quickly to customer requests. Enabling is giving workers the education and tools they need to assume their new decision-making powers.
What is knowledge management?
Knowledge management is finding the right information, keeping the information in a readily accessible place, and making the information known to everyone in the firm.
What are the five steps of the control function?
Controlling incorporates (1) setting clear standards, (2) monitoring and recording performance, (3) comparing performance with plans and standards, (4) communicating results and deviations to employees, and (5) providing positive feedback for a job well done and taking corrective action if necessary.
What qualities must standards possess to measure performance results?
Standards must be specific, attainable, and measurable.
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