How many major groups of plants are there?
What do all plants have in common?
eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthetic, cell walls with cellulose, embryo develops in female
What is the origin of plants from algae based on?
molecular, cellular, and anatomical comparisons
multi-cellular green algae
What did plants originate from?
What did plants adapt to?
life on land
Why are charophytes different from plants?
plants adapted to life on land
What did plants have to do to adapt to life on land?
obtain resources from air and soil, stay upright, maintain moisture, reproduce
What adaptation did plants have to make to obtain resources from air and soil?
What adaptation did plants have to make to stay upright?
What adaptation did plants have to make to maintain moisture?
form cuticle and stomates
What adaptation did plants have to make to reproduce?
form protective jacket to prevent drying out and for dispersal of seeds; pollen
What is a mechanism for sperm to get to egg without water?
What are the 4 major periods of plant evolution?
origin of plants from charophytes, development of lignin and vascular tissue, origin of the seed, origin of angiosperms
What was the 1st group of plants on land?
What is an example of a bryophyte?
do not have seeds, lignin, or vascular tissue
What were the 2nd group of plants on land?
What is an example of a pteridophyte?
early vascular plant that lacked seeds
an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat
What contributed to spread of plants to diverse habitats and land?
allowed embryos to be dispersed without drying out
What was the 3rd group of plants?
What is an example of gymnosperms?
What type of seeds did gymnosperms have?
What is an example of angiosperms?
What did angiosperms have that no plant before it had?
ovaries and fruit
plant with ovaries and fruit
generations alternate between diploid and haploid
alternation of generation
What are the 2 distinct multicellular generations in the alternation of generations?
gametophytes and sporophytes
haploid generation in alternation of generations
diploid generation in alternation of generations
How do gametophytes grow?
from spores by mitosis
What does the gametophyte generation do?
makes haploid gametes that fuse and form zygotes
How do sporophytes grow?
by mitosis from zygote
What does the sporophyte generation do?
makes haploid spores by meiosis
What 2 ways can spores differ from gametes?
can develop into new organism without fusing with another cell, have tough coats enabling them to resist harsh conditions
Why does a spore differ from a gamete when it develops a new organism without fusing with another cell?
2 gametes must fuse to form a zygote
Why does a spore differ from a gamete when it forms a tough coat enabling it to resist harsh conditions?
gametes not able to resist harsh conditions
multicellular autotroph in which the embryo develops within the female gametophyte
system of tube-shaped cells that branches throughout a plant and transports water, mineral nutrients, and organic molecules
chemical that hardens certain plant cell walls
waxy coating on the leaves and other aboveground parts of plants that helps the plant retain water
microscopic pores in a leaf's surface
in flowering plants, protective organ inside a flower that bears seeds
haploid generation of a plant; produces gametes
diploid generation of a plant; produces spores
alternation between gametophyte and sporophyte in the life cycle of a plant
alternation of generations
plant, such as a moss, lacking lignin-hardened vascular tissue
member of a group of seedless vascular plants with lignin-hardened support tissues that includes ferns
plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary
much-reduced male gametophyte of seed plants that contains cells that develop into sperm
plant embryo packaged along with a food supply within a protective coat
structure in seed plants in which the female gametophyte develops
specialized plant shoot that functions in reproduction; unique to angiosperms
male reproductive organ of a flower
female reproductive organ of a flower
nutrient-storing tissue that nourishes the developing embryo of a plant
ripened ovary of a flower
What are some examples of bryophytes?
mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Where do bryophytes grow?
a pioneer species of plant
contain no lignin or vascular tissue
What generation is dominant in bryophytes?
How do the sperm get to the egg in bryophytes?
Where are gametes produced in bryophytes?
tips of gametophyte
What happens once the egg is fertilized in bryophytes?
sporophyte grows from gametophyte
stalk-like structure that grows out of gametophyte
What are some examples of pteridophytes?
What formed fossil fuels?
1st type of plant to have lignin-hardened vascular tissue
What is the dominant generation in pteridophytes?
How are gametophytes grown in pteridophytes?
spore capsule on underside releases haploid spores
What contains sperm and egg producing structures on underside of pteridophytes?
How do sperms fertilize eggs in pteridophytes?
What does the zygote grow into in pteridophytes?
What are some examples of gymnosperms?
conifers, cycads, gnetophytes
What additional adaptations for survival did gymnosperms develop?
smaller gametophyte, pollen, seeds
What reproductive structure do gymnosperms have?
What reproductive structure in gymnosperms produces gametophytes?
What is the dominant generation in gymnosperms?
male gametophyte that contains sperm producing structures
How do sperms get to egg in gymnosperms?
carried by wind
structures from which female gametophytes develop
What are the 2 groups of angiosperms?
What are the reproductive structures of flowers?
specialized type of shoot
Where does the gametophyte develop in angiosperms?
within flowers of sporophyte
male reproductive organ in flowers
What part of the stamen produces pollen grains containing male gametophytes in flowers?
female reproductive organ in flowers
What does the base of the carpel in flowers contain?
What develops in the ovary of a flower?
nutrient storing tissue that nourishes the developing plant embryo
What produces a fruit?
ovary wall thickens
ripened or mature ovary of a flower
protect and disperse seeds
provide food that supports human life
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