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What do all plants have in common?
eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthetic, cell walls with cellulose, embryo develops in female
What did plants have to do to adapt to life on land?
obtain resources from air and soil, stay upright, maintain moisture, reproduce
What adaptation did plants have to make to reproduce?
form protective jacket to prevent drying out and for dispersal of seeds; pollen
What are the 4 major periods of plant evolution?
origin of plants from charophytes, development of lignin and vascular tissue, origin of the seed, origin of angiosperms
What are the 2 distinct multicellular generations in the alternation of generations?
gametophytes and sporophytes
What 2 ways can spores differ from gametes?
can develop into new organism without fusing with another cell, have tough coats enabling them to resist harsh conditions
Why does a spore differ from a gamete when it develops a new organism without fusing with another cell?
2 gametes must fuse to form a zygote
Why does a spore differ from a gamete when it forms a tough coat enabling it to resist harsh conditions?
gametes not able to resist harsh conditions
system of tube-shaped cells that branches throughout a plant and transports water, mineral nutrients, and organic molecules
waxy coating on the leaves and other aboveground parts of plants that helps the plant retain water
alternation between gametophyte and sporophyte in the life cycle of a plant
alternation of generations
member of a group of seedless vascular plants with lignin-hardened support tissues that includes ferns
What additional adaptations for survival did gymnosperms develop?
smaller gametophyte, pollen, seeds
What part of the stamen produces pollen grains containing male gametophytes in flowers?
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