EMS Life Science End of the Year Cummulative Review Questions
You are studying protist in the lab. You should not draw a conclusion about your work until after you conduct an ________________________.
The _____________is your "educated guess" when using the scientific method.
WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE
During photosynthesis, plant-like protists take in _________ & _________ and in the presence of sunlight create oxygen and sugar.
All words that end in -ose represent what in science? Hint: think about the word - glucose
Photosynthesis takes place where inside the plant cell?
What specific type of organism creates about 60% of the world's oxygen?
ATP; WATER AND CARBON DIXOIDE
In cellular respiration, organisms take in sugar and oxygen and convert it to ___ - which is the energy molecule they need to live. The byproducts of this reaction are _____________ & _______________.
Cellular respiration occurs inside the ____________.
1. CELL WALL 2. CHLOROPLASTS 3. LARGE VACUOLE (CENTRAL VACUOLE)
Name three things found in plant cells that are NOT found in animal cells:
What is another name for "genetic material"?
If unwound and tied together, the strands of DNA from just ONE cell would stretch out to about ____ feet? This "string" of DNA would only be 50 trillionths of an inch wide though!
If you unwound ALL of the DNA in your body and tied them together - you would have enough "DNA string" to go the moon _________times!
Food chains show how matter & energy are transferred from one organism to the next as they __________ one another.
What type of organisms will always be found at the beginning of food chains because of their ability to convert energy from the sun into stored chemical energy?
What type of organisms will be found at the end of food chains, because of their ability to break down dead and decaying oraganic matter?
ASEXUALLY AND SEXUALLY
How do protists reproduce?
Which type of protist reproduction involves only one parent?
Which type of protist reproduction involves 2 parents sharing genetic material?
A ______________is a cell with no nucleus and no other membrane-bound organelles.
a ______________is a cell with a nucleus and membrane-covered organelles.
Most protists are simple, single-celled organisms that belong in which domain?
You are studying a pond water sample under a microscope. You see a single-celled organism with a cell nucleus and some green irregularly shaped organelles floating in the cytoplasm. Which type of protist are you most likely observing?
Animal cells cannot use energy from the sun to make food because they lack a _____________.
The egg yolk from an ________ egg is the largest cell. They can be up to 6 inches long!
What part of the cell actually allows osmosis and diffusion to occur?
If a cell is not producing proteins, which organelle would you suspect is not functioning properly?
What role do algae play in a food chain?
What role do animal-like protists play in a food chain?
What role do fungus-like protist play in a food chain?
To what kingdom does an orgaism belong that is a eukaryote - but is NOT a plant, fungus, or animal?
OSMOSIS AND DIFFUSION
How do single-celled organisms like bacteria and protists actually take in the water and nutrients they need to survive?
The cell structure that makes a plant cell more rigid than an animal cell is the:
Cells use energy to move substances across the cell membrane in what process?
OTHER PRE-EXISTING CELLS
According to cell theory - where do all cells come from?
The "control center" of a cell is the ________.
MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLAST
What two organelles are associated with the production and storage/release of energy?
What part of a plant cell could be considered a "storgae tank"?
If cell "A" has more mitochondria than cell "B", it is likely that cell "A" is making more _________than cell "B".
Which organelle contains digestive enzymes?
Other than the decomposer themselves - who benefits the MOST from the products of decomposers?
1. SUNLIGHT 2. CHLOROPLASTS 3. WATER 4. CARBON DIOXIDE
Photsynthesis is the way producers make food. What 4 things are always needed for photosynthesis to start?
BACTERIA AND FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTS
The earth would be covered in garbage and waste without what two organisms from the first two units?
Osmosis and diffusion are examples of ________transport, because they do not require energy.
Some scientists think that protists _________ (changed over time) from ancient single-celled bacteria.
The beginning source of energy for almost every food chain on earth is the ______.
Why do farmers and breeders practice selective breeding?
To produce organisms with desirable traits
Each version of a particular gene is called
A breed of cow has a milk producing gene that can result in high volume, M, or low volume, m. what genotype will result in a cow that produces a low volume of milk?
mm (homozygous recessive)
If a species has 40 pairs of chromosomes, how many chromosomes would it's sperm cell have?
How much genetic material would you find in a cloned cell as compared to an original cell?
a) double b) half c)same d) no way of knowing
A ______________ allele is one that is expressed only when two copies of it are present on the homologs.
Red flowers are dominant to white. If a plant is heterozygous, what would be its genotype?
In guinea pigs, black fur is dominant to white. If a guinea pig is hybrid, what would be its genotype?
In cats, a long haired coat is dominant to a short haired coat. What would be the genotype of a cat that has a short coat?
a hot or cold region that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year
a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment and reproduce
a tropical grassland with scattered clumps of trees; found in the tropical wet-and-dry climate zone close to the equator
an extremely cold, dry biome with permafrost
a habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean
organ that serves no useful function in an organism, scientists believe it is a "leftover" from a primitive ancestor
the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do
the living factors which affect the system - for example predators or food supply
the non-living factors which affect the system - for example weather, natural disasters, drought ....
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
the process in which carbon and oxygen cycle amoung plants, animals, and the enviroment
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
A way of showing how energy is lost as it moves along the food chain
a chain of organisms in which each link feeds on the one ahead and is eaten by the one behind
way of showing how food chains are related
animal that hunts and eats other animals
a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited
a symbiotic relationship whereby one organism/species benefits from the relationship and the other organism is harmed
an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
water that is not salty or has minute traces of salt
ocean; water contains approximately 3.5% salt
a coniferous forest biome characterized by long cold winters and short summers; famous for mountains
tropical rain forest
average yearly rainfall is great, soil is thin and nutrient poor, lush plant life, located near the equator
biome characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the autumn; mild climate - warm summers, cool winter
warm hot summmers; cold wintrs, and characterizied by a rich mix if grasses and some of the world's most fertile soils; home to large grazing herds
another word for taiga or coniferous forest
1)ponds and lakes 2)streams and rivers and 3)wetlands
Areas of standing water such as marches, swamps and bogs; acts as a filter of run off water
An animal that feeds on the remains of a dead organism
no more living members of the species still alive
The formation of a new species
Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes. Has half the number of chromosomes. (Ex: egg and sperm)
strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material found in the nucleus of a cell that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
cell division that produces reproductive haploid cells in sexually reproducing organisms
having two different alleles for a trait. (Ex: Ff, Ll, Ss, Bb)
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait. Located on the chromosome.
the different forms of a gene
genetic makeup of an organism. The combination of the alleles for a particular gene. (Ex: homozygous or heterozygous)
physical characteristics of an organism
having two identical alleles for a trait. (Ex: LL, SS, bb, kk)
a science of manipulating the genes of living things to instill some desirable trait not present in the original organism. An example is a tomato given a gene to delay its rotting.
A series of questions, each with only two answers, that can be used to help identify organisms.
Broad taxa that consists of six groups: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
Organisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals are all examples.
Organisms that are unicellular and have no cell or membrane bound organelles. Bacteria are examples.
Made up of the genus and species name.
The Science of classifying organisms and giving each a scientific name.
One of the six kingdoms. Includes unicellular organisms that are prokaryotic and live in extreme environments.
One of the six kingdoms. Includes unicellular organisms that are prokaryotic. An example is E-coli.
One of the six kingdoms. Includes unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes that are classified by how they obtain their energy. Examples include algae, protozoas, and slime molds.
One of the six kingdoms. Includes mostly multicellular eukaryotic decomposers that get their energy by absorbing nutrients from dead organisms. Examples include mold and mushrooms.
One of six kingdoms. Includes multicelluar eukaryotes that get their energy by the process of photosynthesis.
One of the six kingdoms. Includes multicellular eukaryotes that are all heterotrophs. Includes humans and insects.
The diffusion of water
The tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Requires no energy.
Type of active transport that involves taking large particules across the cell membrane into the cell.
Type of active transport that involves taking large particles across the cell membrane out of the cell. "Exiting the cell"
The movement of materials through a membrane without the use of energy.
The movement of materials through a membrane that requires the use of energy.
The phase of the cell cycle during which the nucleus divides.
The genetic material found in all living cells that contains the information needed for an organism grow, reproduce, and maintain homeostasis.
Form of asexual reproduction by which single celled organisms reproduce. Involves one unicellular organism splitting into two identical unicellular organisms. Bacteria reproduce this way.
A type of reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells combine to form offspring that are genetically different than the two parents. Causes genetic variation.
The process by which a single organism produces offspring that has the same genetic material.
An organism that feeds on and breaks down dead organisms. Natures recyclers and always the last link in a food chain.
An organism that captures energy from sunlight to make their own food. Also known as autotrophs and always the first link in any food chain.
An organism that gets their energy by eating other organisms. Also known as a heterotroph.
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
The green substance inside chloroplasts that absorbs energy from sunlight to use in photosynthesis.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy. The site of photosynthesis.
Kingdom of organisms that can perform photosynthesis to make food. Characteristics include multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic, and mostly green in color.
Type of cell division that produces 4 haploid sex cells.
plant embryo that is enclosed in a protective coating and has its own source of nutrients.
strong outer layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria that is used to protect the cell.
system of tissues that transport water and other materials in plants
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective covering. Also means "naked seed".
flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue called a fruit that protects the seed
the process whereby seeds begin to grow
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Glucose and oxygen
What is needed in order for photosynthesis to occur?
Water, Sunlight, and carbon dioxide
From which group of organisms did plants probably evolve?
Why do mosses need to live close to the ground?
They have no vascular tissue to transport water.
What does the word dormant mean?
to be inactive or asleep.
What is the job of flower petals?
to attract pollinators
Pollination is a process of what type of reproduction?
Name three characteristics of the plant kingdom.
Eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophs, have a cell wall around their cells, cells contain a chloroplast
The xylem is a vascular tissue found in many plants. What materials does it transport from the roots up to the leaves?
Water and minerals
What vascular tissue transports sugars throughout the plant?
Smallest unit of all living organisms.
Requires only one parent and offsppring are genetically identical to the parent.
Blue print of life. Genetic material found in all living organisms that contains the information for growth and development.
Steps a scientist takes when conducting an experiment.
An educated guess or possible explanation.
An experiment that contains only one manipulated variable and everything else is kept the same for each group.
Only one of these in a controlled experiment. It is what the scientist deliberately changes in an experiment.
The grouping of similiar organisms.
The ability to maintain a stable internal environment.
The science of classifying organisms and giving each a scientific name.
A tool scientist use to identify unknown organisms.
Type of organisms divided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. Simple unicellular organisms that have no nucleus.
Type of asexual reproduction in which a unicellular organisms divides into two unicellular organisms that are identical.
Tendency of molecules to move from an area of High concentration to Low concentration. NO ENERGY NEEDED. Example: Osmosis
Cell with no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
Scientific idea that is supported by large amounts of evidence and experimentation.
The diffusion of WATER across a cell membrane. NO Energy Needed.
A characteristic that helps an organism survive.
What is the part of the microscope that moves the stage up and down?
List the Eight characteristics of all living organisms.
1. Has DNA 2. Made up of one or more cells. 3. Use and obtain energy. 4. Grow and Develop 5. Reproduce 6. Respond to the environment. 7. Adapt to the environment 8. Maintain Homeostasis
What is a heterotroph?
Another name for a consumer. Gets energy from other organisms.
What is an autotroph?
An organism that receives its energy directly from the sun.
Name the Eight levels of Taxonomy
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What are the rules to writing a scientific Name?
Genus Name first and species name second. Capitalize the genus name and lowercase the species name. Underline or italicize the name.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of ALL living organisms? A. Have DNA B. Adaptation C. Ability to move to get food D. Produce Offspring
C. The ability to move to get food.
What two kingdoms are made up of unicellular organisms with no nucleus?
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Name the six kingdoms of organisms.
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Organisms that break down the remains of dead organisms are called ________.
Organisms that are made up of one cell are called ________.
An organism was found swimming with a flagella in a boiling hot spring. It has no nucleus or any other organelles. The organism found was most likely a(n)
Who came up with taxonomy?
A researcher uses a computer to create a graph from collected date. What step of the scientific method is this?
A set of widely accepted explanations of observations and phenomena are called a(n)
Why would a scientist use a dichotomous key?
To identify an unknown organism
The tendency of molecules to move from an area of High concentatrion to an area of Low concentration, ________________.
The scientific name for the white water lily is Nymphaea albaea. Solely from the scientific name you know that the water lily a. belongs to genus Nymphaea b. is native to North America c. is a plant d. all of the above
a. belongs to genus Nymphaea
Name two kingdoms that are prokaryotic.
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
How do bacteria move?
Some use a flagella or cillia, others cannot move at all.