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490 terms

EMS Life Science End of the Year Cummulative Review Questions

STUDY
PLAY
EXPERIMENT
You are studying protist in the lab. You should not draw a conclusion about your work until after you conduct an ________________________.
HYPOTHESIS
The _____________is your "educated guess" when using the scientific method.
WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE
During photosynthesis, plant-like protists take in _________ & _________ and in the presence of sunlight create oxygen and sugar.
SUGARS
All words that end in -ose represent what in science?
Hint: think about the word - glucose
CHLOROPLASTS
Photosynthesis takes place where inside the plant cell?
PHYTOPLANKTON
What specific type of organism creates about 60% of the world's oxygen?
ATP; WATER AND CARBON DIXOIDE
In cellular respiration, organisms take in sugar and oxygen and convert it to ___ - which is the energy molecule they need to live. The byproducts of this reaction are _____________ & _______________.
MITOCHONDRIA
Cellular respiration occurs inside the ____________.
1. CELL WALL
2. CHLOROPLASTS
3. LARGE VACUOLE (CENTRAL VACUOLE)
Name three things found in plant cells that are NOT found in animal cells:
DNA
What is another name for "genetic material"?
6
If unwound and tied together, the strands of DNA from just ONE cell would stretch out to about ____ feet? This "string" of DNA would only be 50 trillionths of an inch wide though!
6000
If you unwound ALL of the DNA in your body and tied them together - you would have enough "DNA string" to go the moon _________times!
EAT (CONSUME)
Food chains show how matter & energy are transferred from one organism to the next as they __________ one another.
PRODUCERS
What type of organisms will always be found at the beginning of food chains because of their ability to convert energy from the sun into stored chemical energy?
DECOMPOSERS
What type of organisms will be found at the end of food chains, because of their ability to break down dead and decaying oraganic matter?
ASEXUALLY AND SEXUALLY
How do protists reproduce?
ASEXUAL (FISSION)
Which type of protist reproduction involves only one parent?
SEXUAL (CONJUGATION)
Which type of protist reproduction involves 2 parents sharing genetic material?
PROKARYOTE
A ______________is a cell with no nucleus and no other membrane-bound organelles.
EUKARYOTE
a ______________is a cell with a nucleus and membrane-covered organelles.
EUKARYA
Most protists are simple, single-celled organisms that belong in which domain?
PLANT-LIKE
You are studying a pond water sample under a microscope. You see a single-celled organism with a cell nucleus and some green irregularly shaped organelles floating in the cytoplasm. Which type of protist are you most likely observing?
CHLOROPLAST
Animal cells cannot use energy from the sun to make food because they lack a _____________.
OSTRICH
The egg yolk from an ________ egg is the largest cell. They can be up to 6 inches long!
CELL MEMBRANE
What part of the cell actually allows osmosis and diffusion to occur?
RIBOSOMES
If a cell is not producing proteins, which organelle would you suspect is not functioning properly?
PRODUCERS
What role do algae play in a food chain?
CONSUMERS
What role do animal-like protists play in a food chain?
DECOMPOSERS
What role do fungus-like protist play in a food chain?
PROTIST
To what kingdom does an orgaism belong that is a eukaryote - but is NOT a plant, fungus, or animal?
OSMOSIS AND DIFFUSION
How do single-celled organisms like bacteria and protists actually take in the water and nutrients they need to survive?
CELL WALL
The cell structure that makes a plant cell more rigid than an animal cell is the:
Active transport
Cells use energy to move substances across the cell membrane in what process?
OTHER PRE-EXISTING CELLS
According to cell theory - where do all cells come from?
NUCLEUS
The "control center" of a cell is the ________.
MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLAST
What two organelles are associated with the production and storage/release of energy?
LARGE VACUOLE
What part of a plant cell could be considered a "storgae tank"?
ENERGY (ATP)
If cell "A" has more mitochondria than cell "B", it is likely that cell "A" is making more _________than cell "B".
LYSOSOMES
Which organelle contains digestive enzymes?
PRODUCERS
Other than the decomposer themselves - who benefits the MOST from the products of decomposers?
1. SUNLIGHT
2. CHLOROPLASTS
3. WATER
4. CARBON DIOXIDE
Photsynthesis is the way producers make food. What 4 things are always needed for photosynthesis to start?
BACTERIA AND FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTS
The earth would be covered in garbage and waste without what two organisms from the first two units?
PASSIVE
Osmosis and diffusion are examples of ________transport, because they do not require energy.
EVOLVED
Some scientists think that protists _________ (changed over time) from ancient single-celled bacteria.
SUN
The beginning source of energy for almost every food chain on earth is the ______.
1. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
2. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
What are the two ways for a cell to release the energy stored in sugars in the absence of oxygen?
ALGAE
_________is the generic term for ALL plant-like protists.
PROTOZOA
__________is the generic term for ALL animal-like protists.
FIRST ANIMAL
Protozoa actually means:
1. CILIA
2. FLAGELLA
3. PSEUDOPODS
4. BY ATTACHING TO A HOST
Animal like protists are consumers and must be able to go get their food. Name 4 ways that protozoa can move about to consume energy:
FALSE FOOT
What does "pseudopod" mean?
CYTOPLASM
What is the name for the gel-like substance inside the cell? The organelles and materials needed for survival float in this substance.
HETEROTROPH
The scientific word for a consumer is:
AUTOTROPH
The scientific word for a porducer is:
1. Cells carry out the basic functions of life
2. All organisms are made up of one or more cells.
3. Cells come from existing cells.
What are the three concepts of the cell theory?
Huge expanses of algae are called ____ _____.
Algal Blooms
MUTUALISM
A symbiotic relationship in which BOTH organisms benefit is called _________
PARASITISM
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed is called ______
Cell
Smallest unit of all living organisms.
Asexual Reproduction
Requires only one parent and offsppring are genetically identical to the parent.
DNA
Blue print of life. Genetic material found in all living organisms that contains the information for growth and development.
Scientific Method
Steps a scientist takes when conducting an experiment.
Hypothesis
An educated guess or possible explanation.
Controlled Experiment
An experiment that contains only one manipulated variable and everything else is kept the same for each group.
Variable
Only one of these in a controlled experiment. It is what the scientist deliberately changes in an experiment.
Classification
The grouping of similiar organisms.
Homeostatsis
The ability to maintain a stable internal environment.
Taxonomy
The science of classifying organisms and giving each a scientific name.
Dichotomous Key
A tool scientist use to identify unknown organisms.
Bacteria
Type of organisms divided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. Simple unicellular organisms that have no nucleus.
Binary Fission
Type of asexual reproduction in which a unicellular organisms divides into two unicellular organisms that are identical.
Diffusion
Tendency of molecules to move from an area of High concentration to Low concentration. NO ENERGY NEEDED.
Example: Osmosis
Prokaryotic Cells
Cell with no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
Theory
Scientific idea that is supported by large amounts of evidence and experimentation.
Osmosis
The diffusion of WATER across a cell membrane. NO Energy Needed.
protist
Single-celled or simple, multi-cellular organisms. Any eukaryote that is not a fungi, plant or animal is placed in this kingdom.
nucleus
Membrane-covered organelle that contains DNA and controls all activities within the cells
cell membrane
The outer layer of a cell that allows needed materials to enter and leave the cell
cell wall
A structure found in plant cells that surrounds the cell and provides strength and support for the cell
ribosomes
Small organelles in which proteins are made from amino acids
mitochondria
Cell organelle in which food molecules are broken down to make ATP for the cell (energy)
chloroplast
An organelle found in the cells of producers where photosynthesis occurs
lysosome
An organelle that digests and removes food particles, waste, and foreign invaders within a cell
consumer
heterotrophs - organisms that get their energy from another source
producer
autotrophs - organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis
decomposer
also heterotrophs - organisms that get their energy by decaying and then absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter
eukaryote
Describes an organism in which all cells contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
Organelle
membrane bound structure inside a cell that performs a specific function
Symbiosis
a long-term relationship between different kinds of organisms
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
parasitism
A symbiotic relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
vacuole
a large membrane covered structure found in plant cells and some protists that serves as a storage container for water and other liquids
Golgi body
the cell organelle that modifies, packages, and transports proteins and other materials out of the cell
Where would you locate a gene?
Genes are located on the chromosome
Where can the genetic material known as DNA be found in eukaryotic cells?
Inside the nucleus
What is the role of RNA?
To receive information from DNA and send it to the ribosome to make proteins
If brown eyes is a dominant trait (B)over blue eyes (b), is it possible for two brown eyed parents to have a child with blue eyes? Why or why not?
Yes, if both parents are carriers of the blue trait (heterozygous).
Is it possible for an individual to have different alleles for the same trait?
Yes, the genotype would be heterozygous. (Ex: Tt or Bb)
How can a person predict possible outcomes between a cross of two parents.
Use a Punnett Square
Where are proteins made?
Ribosomes
Which of the following is an inherited trait?

A) Ability to swim
B) Being overweight
C) Speaking English
D) Having bushy eyebrows
D) Having bushy eyebrows
A process in which two parent produce offspring that are genetically different is called _______.
Sexual reproduction
Give three examples of asexual reproduction
Binary fission, fragmentation, Budding (shown above)
Process by which humans change the DNA sequence of an organism thru lab procedures
Genetic Engineering or Genetic Manipulation
A long chain of amino acids makes a ______
Protein
When two alleles are identical, the genotype is said to be
homozygous
A trait that always occurs when one allele is present is
dominant
How many chromosomes are found in a gamete?
Half the number (In humans 23).
The process that makes sex cells is called
Meiosis
Another name for sex cells is _______
gametes
Brown eyes is dominant over blue eyes. What percent of the offspring would have brown eyes if you crossed two heterozygous parents.
75%
Name the three possible genotypes
heterozygous, homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive
An inherited trait that is expressed called a
phenotype
What form of reproduction is common in bacteria?
Binary fission
Why do farmers and breeders practice selective breeding?
To produce organisms with desirable traits
Each version of a particular gene is called
an allele
A breed of cow has a milk producing gene that can result in high volume, M, or low volume, m. what genotype will result in a cow that produces a low volume of milk?
mm (homozygous recessive)
If a species has 40 pairs of chromosomes, how many chromosomes would it's sperm cell have?
20
How much genetic material would you find in a cloned cell as compared to an original cell?

a) double b) half c)same
d) no way of knowing
c) same
A ______________ allele is one that is expressed only when two copies of it are present on the homologs.
recessive
Red flowers are dominant to white. If a plant is heterozygous, what would be its genotype?
Rr
In guinea pigs, black fur is dominant to white. If a guinea pig is hybrid, what would be its genotype?
Bb
In cats, a long haired coat is dominant to a short haired coat. What would be the genotype of a cat that has a short coat?
ll
desert
a hot or cold region that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year
adaptation
a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment and reproduce
savanna
a tropical grassland with scattered clumps of trees; found in the tropical wet-and-dry climate zone close to the equator
tundra
an extremely cold, dry biome with permafrost
estuary
a habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean
vestigial organ
organ that serves no useful function in an organism, scientists believe it is a "leftover" from a primitive ancestor
generation time
the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
natural selection
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do
Biotic
the living factors which affect the system - for example predators or food supply
Abiotic
the non-living factors which affect the system - for example weather, natural disasters, drought ....
nitrogen cycle
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
carbon-oxygen cycle
the process in which carbon and oxygen cycle amoung plants, animals, and the enviroment
water cycle
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
energy pyramid
A way of showing how energy is lost as it moves along the food chain
food chain
a chain of organisms in which each link feeds on the one ahead and is eaten by the one behind
food web
way of showing how food chains are related
predator
animal that hunts and eats other animals
symbiosis
a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other
Mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
Commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited
Parasitism
a symbiotic relationship whereby one organism/species benefits from the relationship and the other organism is harmed
Prey
an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
freshwater
water that is not salty or has minute traces of salt
marine
ocean; water contains approximately 3.5% salt
taiga
a coniferous forest biome characterized by long cold winters and short summers; famous for mountains
tropical rain forest
average yearly rainfall is great, soil is thin and nutrient poor, lush plant life, located near the equator
deciduous forest
biome characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the autumn; mild climate - warm summers, cool winter
temperate grassland
warm hot summmers; cold wintrs, and characterizied by a rich mix if grasses and some of the world's most fertile soils; home to large grazing herds
boreal forest
another word for taiga or coniferous forest
Freshwater Biomes
1)ponds and lakes 2)streams and rivers and 3)wetlands
Wetlands
Areas of standing water such as marches, swamps and bogs; acts as a filter of run off water
scavenger
An animal that feeds on the remains of a dead organism
EXTINCT
no more living members of the species still alive
Speciation
The formation of a new species
RNA
Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
Mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes. Has half the number of chromosomes. (Ex: egg and sperm)
cell wall
strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material found in the nucleus of a cell that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive haploid cells in sexually reproducing organisms
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait. (Ex: Ff, Ll, Ss, Bb)
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
Punnett Square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
Genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait. Located on the chromosome.
alleles
the different forms of a gene
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism. The combination of the alleles for a particular gene. (Ex: homozygous or heterozygous)
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait. (Ex: LL, SS, bb, kk)
Genetic engineering
a science of manipulating the genes of living things to instill some desirable trait not present in the original organism. An example is a tomato given a gene to delay its rotting.
Dichotomous Key
A series of questions, each with only two answers, that can be used to help identify organisms.
Kingdom
Broad taxa that consists of six groups: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
Eukaryotic
Organisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals are all examples.
Prokaryotic
Organisms that are unicellular and have no cell or membrane bound organelles. Bacteria are examples.
Scientific Name
Made up of the genus and species name.
Taxonomy
The Science of classifying organisms and giving each a scientific name.
Archaebacteria
One of the six kingdoms. Includes unicellular organisms that are prokaryotic and live in extreme environments.
Eubacteria
One of the six kingdoms. Includes unicellular organisms that are prokaryotic. An example is E-coli.
Protista
One of the six kingdoms. Includes unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes that are classified by how they obtain their energy. Examples include algae, protozoas, and slime molds.
Fungi
One of the six kingdoms. Includes mostly multicellular eukaryotic decomposers that get their energy by absorbing nutrients from dead organisms. Examples include mold and mushrooms.
Plantae
One of six kingdoms. Includes multicelluar eukaryotes that get their energy by the process of photosynthesis.
Animalia
One of the six kingdoms. Includes multicellular eukaryotes that are all heterotrophs. Includes humans and insects.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water
Diffusion
The tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Requires no energy.
Endocytosis
Type of active transport that involves taking large particules across the cell membrane into the cell.
Exocytosis
Type of active transport that involves taking large particles across the cell membrane out of the cell. "Exiting the cell"
Passive Transport
The movement of materials through a membrane without the use of energy.
Active Transport
The movement of materials through a membrane that requires the use of energy.
Mitosis
The phase of the cell cycle during which the nucleus divides.
DNA
The genetic material found in all living cells that contains the information needed for an organism grow, reproduce, and maintain homeostasis.
Binary Fission
Form of asexual reproduction by which single celled organisms reproduce. Involves one unicellular organism splitting into two identical unicellular organisms. Bacteria reproduce this way.
Sexual Reproduction
A type of reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells combine to form offspring that are genetically different than the two parents. Causes genetic variation.
Asexual Reproduction
The process by which a single organism produces offspring that has the same genetic material.
Decomposer
An organism that feeds on and breaks down dead organisms. Natures recyclers and always the last link in a food chain.
Producer
An organism that captures energy from sunlight to make their own food. Also known as autotrophs and always the first link in any food chain.
Consumer
An organism that gets their energy by eating other organisms. Also known as a heterotroph.
Autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Chlorophyll
The green substance inside chloroplasts that absorbs energy from sunlight to use in photosynthesis.
Chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy. The site of photosynthesis.
Plant Kingdom
Kingdom of organisms that can perform photosynthesis to make food. Characteristics include multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic, and mostly green in color.
Meiosis
Type of cell division that produces 4 haploid sex cells.
Seed
plant embryo that is enclosed in a protective coating and has its own source of nutrients.
Cell Wall
strong outer layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria that is used to protect the cell.
Vascular system
system of tissues that transport water and other materials in plants
Pollination
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
Bryophyte
nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives
Photosynthesis
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Gymnosperm
a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective covering. Also means "naked seed".
Angiosperm
flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue called a fruit that protects the seed
Germination
the process whereby seeds begin to grow
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Glucose and oxygen
What is needed in order for photosynthesis to occur?
Water, Sunlight, and carbon dioxide
From which group of organisms did plants probably evolve?
Algae
Why do mosses need to live close to the ground?
They have no vascular tissue to transport water.
What does the word dormant mean?
to be inactive or asleep.
What is the job of flower petals?
to attract pollinators
Pollination is a process of what type of reproduction?
sexual reproduction
Name three characteristics of the plant kingdom.
Eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophs, have a cell wall around their cells, cells contain a chloroplast
The xylem is a vascular tissue found in many plants. What materials does it transport from the roots up to the leaves?
Water and minerals
What vascular tissue transports sugars throughout the plant?
the phloem
Cell
Smallest unit of all living organisms.
Asexual Reproduction
Requires only one parent and offsppring are genetically identical to the parent.
DNA
Blue print of life. Genetic material found in all living organisms that contains the information for growth and development.
Scientific Method
Steps a scientist takes when conducting an experiment.
Hypothesis
An educated guess or possible explanation.
Controlled Experiment
An experiment that contains only one manipulated variable and everything else is kept the same for each group.
Variable
Only one of these in a controlled experiment. It is what the scientist deliberately changes in an experiment.
Classification
The grouping of similiar organisms.
Homeostatsis
The ability to maintain a stable internal environment.
Taxonomy
The science of classifying organisms and giving each a scientific name.
Dichotomous Key
A tool scientist use to identify unknown organisms.
Bacteria
Type of organisms divided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. Simple unicellular organisms that have no nucleus.
Binary Fission
Type of asexual reproduction in which a unicellular organisms divides into two unicellular organisms that are identical.
Diffusion
Tendency of molecules to move from an area of High concentration to Low concentration. NO ENERGY NEEDED.
Example: Osmosis
Prokaryotic Cells
Cell with no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
Theory
Scientific idea that is supported by large amounts of evidence and experimentation.
Osmosis
The diffusion of WATER across a cell membrane. NO Energy Needed.
Adaptation
A characteristic that helps an organism survive.
What is the part of the microscope that moves the stage up and down?
Coarse Adjustment
List the Eight characteristics of all living organisms.
1. Has DNA
2. Made up of one or more cells.
3. Use and obtain energy.
4. Grow and Develop
5. Reproduce
6. Respond to the environment.
7. Adapt to the environment
8. Maintain Homeostasis
What is a heterotroph?
Another name for a consumer. Gets energy from other organisms.
What is an autotroph?
An organism that receives its energy directly from the sun.
Name the Eight levels of Taxonomy
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What are the rules to writing a scientific Name?
Genus Name first and species name second. Capitalize the genus name and lowercase the species name. Underline or italicize the name.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of ALL living organisms?
A. Have DNA
B. Adaptation
C. Ability to move to get food
D. Produce Offspring
C. The ability to move to get food.
What two kingdoms are made up of unicellular organisms with no nucleus?
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Name the six kingdoms of organisms.
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Organisms that break down the remains of dead organisms are called ________.
Decomposers
Organisms that are made up of one cell are called ________.
Unicellular
An organism was found swimming with a flagella in a boiling hot spring. It has no nucleus or any other organelles. The organism found was most likely a(n)
Archaebacteria
Who came up with taxonomy?
carolus linnaeus
A researcher uses a computer to create a graph from collected date. What step of the scientific method is this?
Analyzing data
A set of widely accepted explanations of observations and phenomena are called a(n)
theory
Why would a scientist use a dichotomous key?
To identify an unknown organism
The tendency of molecules to move from an area of High concentatrion to an area of Low concentration, ________________.
Diffusion
The scientific name for the white water lily is Nymphaea albaea. Solely from the scientific name you know that the water lily
a. belongs to genus Nymphaea
b. is native to North America
c. is a plant
d. all of the above
a. belongs to genus Nymphaea
Name two kingdoms that are prokaryotic.
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
How do bacteria move?
Some use a flagella or cillia, others cannot move at all.
Name three types of archaebacteria
Halophiles (salt lovers)
Methanogens (Methane lovers)
Thermophiles (Extreme temperatures)
Name three characteristics of the bacteria kingdom
Prokaryotic (no nucleus), have a cell wall, and unicellular.
Where is DNA located in a prokaryotic cell?
In the cytoplasm
Maintaining a body temperature of 37 degrees celcius and a stable amount of sugar in your blood are both examples of _______
homeostasis
When a cell membrane surrounds a particle, encloses it in a vesicle, and brings the particle into the cell, this is called ________
endocytosis
climax community
a stable, mature community that has had little or no change
equilibrium
when an ecosystem's population is balanced. there are no drastic changes in the population
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during primary succession; example - lichen
primary succession
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed
secondary succession
the series of changes that occur after a disturbance of an existing ecosystem
succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
yeast
What is the only unicellular fungi?
multicellular
Other than yeast, all fungi are _______.
budding
Yeast reproduce by _______.
sexually
Fungi can reproduce asexually and _______.
external digestion
How do fungi absorb food?
asexual
Is reproduction by budding sexual or asexual?
penicillin
What is one of the best-known imperfect fungi?
reproductive
Fruiting bodies are _______ structures.
chitin
Fungi have cell walls with _______
yeast
What fungi uses the anaerobic process of fermentation?
Fungi
A eukaryotic organism that has cell wells, use spores to reproduce, and is a heterotroph that feeds by absorbing its food
Hyphae
The branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi.
Fruiting Bodies
The reproductive structure of a fungus that contains many hyphae and produces spores.
Budding
A form of asexual reproduction of yeast in which a new cell grows out of the body of a parent.
Lichen
The combination of a fungus and either an alga or an autotrophic bacterium that live together in a mutualistic relationship.
Spores
Tiny reproductive cells.
Roles of Fungus
decomposer, recyclers, foods, cause disease, fight disease and part of lichen.
Mycorrhizae
A mutualism in which the hyphae of the fungus live on the roots of the plant and spread out underground and absorb water and nutrients from the soil for the plant.
photosynthesis
the process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen gas to break down carbohydrates, releasing chemical energy that the cell can use
autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
glucose
created by plants; the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues
C6H12O6
the chemical formula for glucose
stomata
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
chlorophyll
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
mitochondria
the cells powerhouse, turning food into energy; the organelle where cellular respiration takes place.
pigment
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light
fermentation
the process by which cells break down carbohydrates to release energy without using oxygen
lactic acid
waste product produced by fermentation; causes muscles to be sore
Exocytosis
Process used to removve large particles from the cell. A form of active transport
Endocytosis
The process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring into the cell.
Mitosis
Division of the nucleus during the cell cycle
Host
an organism on which a parasite lives.
Fungi
kingdom of complex organisms that obtain food by breaking down other substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients.
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes with matching information
Binary Fission
simple cell division in which one cell splits into two.
Chromosomes
a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division.
Diffusion
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
fermentation
The breakdown of sugar to make ATP without oxygen.
symbiosis
A close long term relationship between two or more organisms.
cellular respiration
The process of producing ATP in the cell from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide and water.
parasitism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
decomposer
An organism that gets its energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or waste and consuming or absorbing the nutrients.
photosynthesis
The process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugars.
osmosis
The diffusion of water across the cell membrane.
CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY
What two systems work together to transport oxygen to every cell in the body?
SUNLIGHT
Animals get energy from the food they eat. What is the ORIGINAL source of this energy?
TISSUE
Similar cells working together to perform a common function make a __________.
SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY
How do animals reproduce?
50%
Human sex cells are called gametes and are involved in sexual reproduction. What percentage of genetic material is found in each of the gametes?
HETEROTROPH
What is the scientific name for the role that animals play in a food chian?
ORGANS
An organ system is made up of different _____________ working together to perform a function.
HOMEOSTASIS
The maintenance of a stable internal environment - like the amount of water in our bodies, or a constant internal temperature is an example of ___________________.
ECTOTHERM
A desert lizard has to be careful with its exposure to the sun and heat because its body temperature changes with the outside conditions. This animal is an ________________.
NERVES
All of the following are involved with removing waste from the body except the ___________.

skin --- lungs --- nerves --- kidneys
ORGAN SYSTEM
The heart pumps blood. Arteries, veins, and capillaries distribute blood to the body. Together these structures make up a(n) ___________________________.
SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR
Which two systems work together to allow you to throw a baseball?
IMMUNE
If you develop a fever while fighting an infection, which organ system is probably responsible?
EVOLUTION
What is the process called that involves entire populations changing over time?
BILATERAL
What type of symmetry do butterflies, humans and a cockroach have?
DECOMPOSER
What is missing in this food chain: sunlight - producers - consumers - scavengers - _______________?
SYMBIOSIS
You and the bacteria living inside your intestines are an example of ____________________.
PARASITE
A tick sucks blood from a dog. In this relationship, the tick is the ________and the dog is the host.
ZEBRA
Which of the following: hydra, zebra, sea urchin and a jelly fish does NOT have radial symmetry?
EUKARYOTIC
Animal cells have a nucleus and other membrane covered organelles - they are _____________________.
ENERGY
The arrows in a food chain or food web can be translated as "I give my ______________ to...."
3-5%
Vertebrates make up about what percent of all animals?
95-97%
Invertebrates make up about what percent of all animals?>
INNATE
Swimming for whales and walking for humans are examples of ______________ behvaiors.
MITOCHONDRIA
Animals need energy to live. They eat food to get the energy stored in food. Where is this food broken down so that energy (ATP) can be released?
SPONGES
These are the simplest animals. They are asymmetrical and live on the ocean floor - filtering water to get the materials they need to survive.
"STINGING CELLS"
Invertebrates like jellyfish, sea anemones and hydras are all classified as cnidarians - this means "_____________".
PARASITES
Simple invertebrates like the tapeworm, pinworm and hookworm all live inside other organisms and eventually harm their host. This makes the worms a _________________.
MOLLUSKS
_____________are animals with a muscular foot that alolows them to move about and look for food. Snails, clams and octopi are examples.
ARTHROPODS
This is the largest phylum of animals on earth! The name means "jointed foot" and they all have jointed appendages.
METAMORPHOSIS
What process do caterpillars and tadpoles both go through as they develop into their adult forms?
VERTEBRATES
What do fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals all have in common? They are all ______________________.
ADAPTAIONS
Fins, gills and a swim bladder are all _____________that fish have that allow them to survive in their environment.
AMPHIBIANS
These were probably the first land-dwelling animals. Their name means "double life", becuase they start life in the water and end on dry land.
WARM BLOODED
Birds are ________________ because their body temperature DOES NOT change with the outside temperature.
PLACENTAL
What specific type of mammal are you?
MOUTH
Where does digestion begin for humans?
BLACK
In guinea pigs, the gene for a black coat is dominant over the gene for a white coat. What color is a guinea pig with one gene for a black coat and one gene for a white coat?
NERVOUS
What system in the human body could be considered an advanced communication system?
SEX CELLS
What types of cells in the human body have one-half the usual numbers of chromosomes?
MOVEMENT
Cilia or flagella in one-celled animals; fins on fish; wings on birds; and legs on mammals are involved with ___________.
SMALL INTESTINES
This is the organ where the actual abosrption of food into the bloodstream occurs.
REPRODUCTION
This is the process by which ALL living things ensure their species continue to exist is called _______________.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Which component of blood is responsible for engulfing and digesting bacteria that invade the body?
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
adrenal glands, pituitary gland and pancreas
NERVOUS SYSTEM
brain, spinal cord and nerves
SKELETAL SYSTEM
femur, clavicle and ribs
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
heart, blood and blood vessels
INTEGUMNETARY SYSTEM
hair, skin and nails
LYMPHATIC / IMMUNE
thymus, spleen and tonsils
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver and pancreas
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
biceps, triceps, tendons and ligaments
URINARY SYSTEM
kindeys, bladder, ureters and urethra
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
eggs, sperm, ovaries and testes
EXCRETORY SYSTEM
skin, liver, kidneys and lungs
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
nose, trachea, lungs, and alveoli
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
controls body fluid balance, growth and sexual development
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Gathers information from the body's environment and coordinates the body's reactions
SKELETAL SYSTEM
Supports and protects the body
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
transports blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
Provides protection of underlying tissues and helps maintain a stable internal environment
LYMPHATIC / IMMUNE SYSTEM
Collects extra fluid and returns it to the blood, also helps the body fight infections
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
breaks down food to be absorbed by the body
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
takes in oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
provides movement for the skeleton
URINARY SYSTEM
filters and removes waste from the blood
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
allows adults to produce offspring
EXCRETORY SYSTEM
'SUPER SYSTEM" - because it involves organs from several different systems working together to REMOVE WASTE from the body
KINGDOM ANIMALIA
Complex, multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophic organisms. Most can move and reproduce sexually
VERTEBRATE
animals with a skull and a backbone
INVERTEBRATE
aninals with no backbone
LEARNED BEHAVIOR
a behavior that has been achieved through observation or experience
INNATE BEHAVIOR
a behavior that is influenced by genes and is NOT learned - you are "born" knowing how to do this
BILATERAL SYMMETRY
a body plan in which the two halves are mirror images
RADIAL SYMMETRY
a body plan in which the parts are arranged in a circle around a central point
ASYMETRICAL
a body plan with NO symmetry
EXOSKELETON
external skeleton - on the OUTSIDE
ENDOSKELETON
internal skeleton - on the INSIDE
METAMORPHOSIS
the process in which an animal completely changes form as it develops from an embryo/larva to an adult
EXOTHERMIC/ECTOTHERMIC
COLD BLOODED - an animal whose body temperature changes with the OUTSIDE temperature
ENDOTHERMIC
WARM BLOODED - an animal whose body temperature remains the SAME no matter what the outside temperature is
HOMEOSTASIS
the maintenance of a stable internal environment
ADAPTATIONS
a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment
EVOLUTION
the process where a population accumulates inherited CHANGES OVER TIME
MUTATION
a change in the order of the bases in an organism's DNA
NATURAL SELECTION
"SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST". The process where those that are best adapted to their environment survive and reproduce at a higher rate than those that aren't
SELECTIVE BREEDING
breeding organisms with specific desired traits
Nucleus
"city hall"
Cell Membrane
"gatekeeper"
Cell Wall
"Brick wall"
Ribsomes
"factory"
Mitochondria
"power plant"
Lysosomes
"garbage man"
Large Vacuole
"water tower"
Endoplasmic Reticulum
"Highways"
Golgi Body
"Mail Man"
protist
Single-celled or simple, multi-cellular organisms. Any eukaryote that is not a fungi, plant or animal is placed in this kingdom.
nucleus
Membrane-covered organelle that contains DNA and controls all activities within the cells
cell membrane
The outer layer of a cell that allows needed materials to enter and leave the cell
cell wall
A structure found in plant cells that surrounds the cell and provides strength and support for the cell
ribosomes
Small organelles in which proteins are made from amino acids
mitochondria
Cell organelle in which food molecules are broken down to make ATP for the cell (energy)
chloroplast
An organelle found in the cells of producers where photosynthesis occurs
lysosome
An organelle that digests and removes food particles, waste, and foreign invaders within a cell
photosynthesis
The process by which a plant takes in carbon dioxide and water and in the presence of sunlight creates oxygen and sugar (glucose)
cellular respiration
The process of producing energy (ATP) in the cell from oxygen and glucose; byproducts are carbon dioxide and water - happens in the mitochondria.
passive transport
The movement of materials through a membrane - no energy required (diffusion and osmosis are examples)
active transport
the process that requires energy to move materials through a membrane
endocytosis
used by cells to take IN material that is too large to pass through the cell membrane
exocytosis
used by cells to LET OUT material that is too large to pass through the cell membrane
consumer
heterotrophs - organisms that get their energy from another source
producer
autotrophs - organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis
decomposer
also heterotrophs - organisms that get their energy by decaying and then absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter
DNA
Genetic material found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
asexual reproduction
One parent produces offspring that are identical to the parent - no variation
sexual reproduction
Two parents paroduce offspring that receive 1/2 of the genetic information from each parent - results in variation.
binary fission
Simple cell division; this is how bacteria reproduce (asexual reproduction)
diffusion
The movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration
osmosis
The diffusion of water
eukaryote
Describes an organism in which all cells contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
desert
a hot or cold region that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year
adaptation
a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment and reproduce
savanna
a tropical grassland with scattered clumps of trees; found in the tropical wet-and-dry climate zone close to the equator
tundra
an extremely cold, dry biome with permafrost
estuary
a habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean
vestigial organ
organ that serves no useful function in an organism, scientists believe it is a "leftover" from a primitive ancestor
generation time
the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
natural selection
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do
Biotic
the living factors which affect the system - for example predators or food supply
Abiotic
the non-living factors which affect the system - for example weather, natural disasters, drought ....
nitrogen cycle
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
carbon-oxygen cycle
the process in which carbon and oxygen cycle amoung plants, animals, and the enviroment
water cycle
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
energy pyramid
A way of showing how energy is lost as it moves along the food chain
food chain
a chain of organisms in which each link feeds on the one ahead and is eaten by the one behind
food web
way of showing how food chains are related
predator
animal that hunts and eats other animals
symbiosis
a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other
Mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
Commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited
Parasitism
a symbiotic relationship whereby one organism/species benefits from the relationship and the other organism is harmed
Prey
an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
freshwater
water that is not salty or has minute traces of salt
marine
ocean; water contains approximately 3.5% salt
taiga
a coniferous forest biome characterized by long cold winters and short summers; famous for mountains
tropical rain forest
average yearly rainfall is great, soil is thin and nutrient poor, lush plant life, located near the equator
deciduous forest
biome characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the autumn; mild climate - warm summers, cool winter
temperate grassland
warm hot summmers; cold wintrs, and characterizied by a rich mix if grasses and some of the world's most fertile soils; home to large grazing herds
boreal forest
another word for taiga or coniferous forest
Freshwater Biomes
1)ponds and lakes 2)streams and rivers and 3)wetlands
Wetlands
Areas of standing water such as marches, swamps and bogs; acts as a filter of run off water
scavenger
An animal that feeds on the remains of a dead organism
EXTINCT
no more living members of the species still alive
Speciation
The formation of a new species
Fungi
A kingdom of eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells have cell walls
Decomposer
Organisms that obtain nutrients by breaking down the remains of dead organisms
Parasitism
A type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed. ( + - )
Host
An organism on which a parasite lives and/or feeds.
Symbiosis
A close long term relationship between two or more organisms. Examples: parastism, mutualism, commensalism.
Succession
A gradual change in a ecosystem in which one community is replaced by another.
Chloroplast
An organelle within the cells of producers that captures sunlight for photosynthesis.
Mitochondria
An organelle within the cell that breaks down food to create cellular energy (ATP).