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126 terms

Combo Research Test 1

Combo Research Test 1
STUDY
PLAY
amount of touch
Is the psychological well-being of patients affected by the amount of touch received from nursing staff? Independent variable
Psychological Well being
Is the psychological well-being of patients affected by the amount of touch received from nursing staff? Dependent variable
Education preparation
Is the education preparation of nurses related to their subsequent turnover rate? Independent variable
Turnover
Is the education preparation of nurses related to their subsequent turnover rate? Dependent variable
Pediatric or Adult ICU assignments
Are levels of stress among nurses higher in pediatric or adult intensive care units? Independent Variable
Stress levels
Are levels of stress among nurses higher in pediatric or adult intensive care units? Dependent Variable
A
The dependent variable(s) in the study, "Is the job performance of nurse affected by salary or perceived job autonomy?" is/are
a. Job performance
c. perceived job autonomy
b. Salary
d. both salary & perceived job autonomy
C
The independent variable in the study, What is the effect of noise levels on postoperative pain or blood pressure fluctuations in ICU patients "" is
a. blood pressure
c. noise levels
b.ICU patients
d. postoperative pain
C
If a researcher unobtrusively studies interaction among patients in a psychiatric hospital, which ethical principle may be violated?
a. Confidentiality
b. Freedom from harm
c. right to self-determination
d. all of the above
D
Vulnerable subjects would include
a. Women hospitalized for a mastectomy
b. Members of a senior citizens' group
c. people with a speech impediment
d. pediatric patients
False
The last major transgression of ethical principles in the conduct of research occurred in the experiments conducted by the Nazis.
True/False
False
Guaranteeing confidentiality to a study participant means that the researcher could never link the information gathered to the person who supplied the information
True/False
A
First-born infants have higher concentration of estrogens and progesterone in umbilical cord blood than do later- born infants.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated
C
There is no relationship between participation in prenatal classes and the health outcomes
of infants.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated
D
Nursing students are increasingly interested in obtaining advanced degrees.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated
B
A person's age is related to his or her difficulty in accessing health care.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated
B
Nurses' job satisfaction is correlated with levels of occupational stress.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated
C
Nurses' experience with abortion patients has no effect on the nurses' attitudes toward abortion.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated
B
Nurses' shift assignments are associated with their rates of absenteeism.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated
C
Beginning researchers typically develop problems that are too:
a. Insignificant
c. broad in scope
b. Non-theoretical
d. unsearchable
B
Identify the most influential event that led to the HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects:
a. Nuremberg trials
b. Syphilis Study at Tuskegee
c. Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital Study
d. Willowbrook Study
C
What are the three ethical principles that constitute the basis for the HHS Human Subjects Regulations (45 CFR 46)?
A. Honesty, Trust, Respect
B. Informed consent, IRB review, Research Integrity
C. Respect for Persons, Beneficence, Justice
D. Protections for Pregnant Women, Prisoners, Children
A
Which entity has regulatory authority for the protection of human subjects for PHS-funded research?
A. OHRP
B. NIH
C. Institutions that receive Federal funds
D. HHS
False
True or False: All research that involves interaction or intervention with humans or human samples/data, whether they are alive or dead, is human subjects research.
True
True or False: An institutionally designated authority, other than the investigator, should determine that proposed studies are exempt from regulatory requirements.
D
Which of the following should be eliminated or minimized in the research design?
A. Coercion
B. Research risks
C. Repeated recruitment of research participants for new protocols
D. All of the above
D
When might human subjects research require investigators to obtain informed consent?
A. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves interactions with research participants.
B. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves interventions with research participants.
C. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves collection of private information from or about research participants.
D. All of the above
False
True or False: After informed consent for a research study is given, a research participant must complete the study.
True
True or False: In general, informed consent should be a process rather than a one-time event.
C
In order to participate in research, children must ...
A. Provide written informed consent
B. Provide written permission
C. Provide assent, unless the IRB determines that they are too young
D. Sign, or put an "X" on the assent document
D
For research involving pregnant women, participation requires ...
A. That women have completed the first trimester.
B. That the study be conducted first in men.
C. Permission of the father.
D. Consideration of risks and potential benefits for the fetus and the pregnant woman.
D
Why might an individual have diminished autonomy?
A. They are a neonate.
B. They are incarcerated or
involuntarily confined.
C. They are unconscious.
D. All of the above.
False
True or False: Risks to research participants must be completely eliminated for the study to be considered ethical.
C
When are researchers specifically required by NIH policy to describe Data and Safety Monitoring?
A. For all research involving human subjects
B. For all research involving children as subjects in research
C. For all clinical trials
D. For all research with prisoners
True
True or False: There must be equipoise in order to justify conducting a clinical trial.
D
What is an appropriate method for maintaining confidentiality of private information obtained from human subjects?
A. Keeping data in a password-protected database
B. Storing images in a secured cabinet
C. Coding data or specimens and keeping the key to the code in a separate, locked drawer
D. All of the above are ways to maintain confidentiality
False
True or False: If a researcher determines that his/her study poses no more than minimal risk as defined in 45 CFR 46, there is no need for the protocol to have IRB review and approval.
C
Children must be included in all NIH-supported human subjects research unless:
A. The researcher is not a pediatrician
B. Past experience has shown it is time-consuming and expensive to recruit children
C. There are scientific and ethical reasons to exclude them
D. The researcher does not possess the pediatric equipment necessary to involve children in the proposed research
true
True or False: For HIV antiretroviral treatment trials conducted in developing countries, the NIH expects investigators/contractors to address the provision of antiretroviral treatment to trial participants after their completion of participation in the clinical trial.
B
Which of the following is TRUE regarding applications for NIH-funded research overseas?
A. It is illegal to spend NIH funds in research overseas
B. Research conducted overseas is subject to HHS Human Subjects Regulations (45 CFR 46) and local regulations and policies
C. Research conducted overseas is only subject to local regulations and policies
D. Research conducted overseas need not address human subjects protections
D
In localities where community consent is the norm,
A. A family member's consent for another individual may be sufficient, as long as community consent is given
B. Federal regulations preclude the conduct of PHS-funded research
C. Community consent to participate in the research study is sufficient and no IRB approval is required
D. In addition to the cultural norm, individual informed consent is required
nonmaleficence
Definition: obligation to avoid, prevent, minimize harm; subjects must not be subjected to unnecessary risk for harm or discomfort
true
True or false; Focus of research must help achieve science and societal importance that could not otherwise be achieved
Nuremberg Code
Written in 1948 in response to the Nazi human experiments
true
The first code in nuremberg codes requires voluntary consent of the human subject true or false
willowbrook
Studies done in 1963 that exposed children to hepatitis
Tuskegee
Studies done 1932-1972 that infected black men with syphilis
Therapeutic
Which type of research; when treating patients, physicians must be free to use new unproven therapeutic measures if doing so offers hope of saving life, restoring health, or alleviating suffering
beneficence
Definition: Doing no harm OR refraining from exploitation of study participants, promoting individual and societal benefits that are directly related to participation in research
respect for persons
Definition: Right to self-determination (autonomy) and right to full disclosure (fully informed consent for research participation
Justice
Definition: Right to privacy and right to fair treatment (research participation)
institutional review board
Definition: Committee to safeguard and formally assess human subjects in research; reviews research protocols for compliance with ethical standards
exploitation
Having subjects complete an interview when they are reluctant is an example of
exploitation
Failure to obtain active consent is an example of
respect to persons
Right to full information, Right to self Determination, Must have full disclosure; this is describing which aspect of IRB
informed consent
Full disclosure, signed document of agreement to participate; this is describing which aspect of IRB
anonymous
Researcher has no way to link the information for study participants with the data provided; this is describing anonymous or confidential
confidential
Researcher does not link the identity of the participants for study subject with data; this is anonymous or confidential
true
Identifying information must be destroyed when possible and as soon as feasible; true or false
exempt
If research involves no more than minimal risk to humans; The IRB is considered what level
FULL
Committee meets, must have 5 members (1 non-researcher), A mix of backgrounds; this describes what level of IRB
expedited
Research involving no more than minimal risk can use this procedure; this describes what level of IRB
true
Didactic and clinical knowledge, understanding of pathophysiology, ability to analyze literature; these are all requirements for EBP. true or false
Cochrane Collaboration
Helps providers make good decisions about health care by preparing and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions: this is known as the
7
How many levels are there in the melnyk-fineout-overholt triangle
RCTs
Definition: draws conclusions about the effects of health care interventions
systemic review
Definition: A methodical, scholarly inquiry that follows many of the same steps as those for primary studies; evidence drive, done by researchers
Meta analysis
Definition: A method of integrating quantitative findings statistically. In essence, it treats the findings from a study as one piece of information. The findings from multiple studies on the same topic are combined and analyzed statistically
necessity
Clinical practice guidelines are driven by
stetler model, Iowa model, diffusion of innovations theory
3 models of EBP
stetler model
Organizations and teams, this describes which model of EBP
Iowa Model
Promotes quality of care, this describes what model of EBP
identify a problem
what is the first step of the research process
universal
Beliefs assumed to be true by a large percentage of society (all humans need love) this is an example of what type of assumption
derived from theory of previous research
Example: stress causes disease; this is what type of assumption
specific to a certain study
3rd type of assumption
hypothesis
Definition: predicts the relationship between two or more variables
theory
Definition: an abstract generalization that presents a systemic explanation about the relationships among phenomena
directional
What type of hypothesis predicts relationship
Null
what type of hypothesis predicts no relationship
pediatric tonsillectomy patients between 2 and 10 years of age
Identify population
intraoperative acetaminophen
Identify Intervention
placebo
Identify comparison
decreased need for supplemental opioid administration
Identify outcome
in PACU
Identify Time
quantitative
Definition: research that is concerned with objectivity, it is measurable, tight control over the research situation
qualitative
Definition: concerned with the subjective meaning of an experience to an individual
experimental
Definition: investigator plays an active role and has more control over the research
non experimental
Definition: collects data about something without manipulating anything
target
The universe; this is what type of population
accessible
Those that are actually available to the study; this is what type of population
Sample
Definition: subgroup of the population
IRB
If conducting research with human subjects what must be obtained
IRB
Definition: assures subjects of their human rights
pilot study
Definition: a miniature version of the planned study
Data
Definition: pieces of information or facts that are collected in a research study
basic research
Definition: information for the sake of knowledge
applied research
Definition: discovering solutions to immediate problems
research problem
Definition: a perplexing situation that a researcher wants to address through disciplined inquiry
Anxiety
What is the independent variable
Midterm examination scores
What is the dependent variable
readiness to learn about diabetes
What is the Dependent variable
length of time with diabetes
What is the independent variable
Descriptive
What type of study is this
Correlational
What type of study is this
experimental
What type of study is this
Knowledge
What is the Dependent variable
simulator training
What is the independent variable
researcher, principle investigator
Definition: person who conducts the study (2)
concepts
What are abstraction called in quantitative research
phenomena
what are abstractions called in qualitative research
variables
In quantitative research, concepts are called
homogeneous
Type of variable that groups that have limited variability
heterogeneous
type of variable that groups are varied
independent variable
Definition: observed, introduced or manipulated to determine the effect it has on another variable
dependent variable
Definition: observed for change or under investigation- the outcome is variable. It is the behavior or characteristic that the researcher is interested in explaining, predicting or affecting
Prevalence of cigarette smoking
What is the dependent variable
cultural group
What is the independent variable
Anxiety
What is the dependent variable
control
What is the independent variable
Headaches
What is the dependent variable
Substance abuse
What is the dependent variable
non directional
Definition: type of hypothesis that predicts that a relationship does exist but does not stipulate the direction of the relationship
directional
This is directional or non directional
IMRAD
Journal article format Acronym
introduction, Method, Results, And, Discussion
IMRAD stands for