film lecture test review - comm 1003
Terms in this set (103)
what constitutes a formal analysis of film?
Film analysis that examines how a scene or sequence uses formal elements to convey story, mood, and meaning
what is cinematic language?
The accepted systems, methods, or conventions by which the movies communicate with the viewer.
what is cultural invisibility?
Just as the techniques of filmmaking can go unnoticed during a casual viewing of a movie, so too can the cultural mores and prejudices lurking under the surface of a movie. These are employed by the filmmaker to reinforce the casual viewer's subconscious beliefs or worldviews.
Explicit meaning is right there on the surface of things—it is the result of what we have been explicitly shown and told onscreen
the underlying message or meaning within a movies plot - > when we attempt to state a movie's implicit meanings, we are attempting to convey something less obvious, something arguable about it that conveys a "message" or "point."
sound that originates in the films world
non- diegetic sound
sound that represented as coming from off the camera - not in the film's world
how do we differentiate form and content?
Content is the subject that is being presented
Form is HOW that subject is presented
How do we differentiate film from other art forms?
What is the relationship between movies and culture?
We bring out own cultural baggage to every movie and that's how we connect
overall look and feel of a movie
two main components of mise-en-scene
Design: the process where the look of the setting, props, lighting, and actors is carefully planned
Composition: the arrangement of elements within a the space of a shot
production designer job
Responsible for the overall design concept; the look of the movie--as well as individual sets, locations, furnishings, props, and costumes--and for supervising the heads of the many departments (art, costume design and construction, hairstyling...)
who is primary narrator of a film
possible narrator types
First-person: usually a voice-over
Third-person: a voice that stems from outside the narrative
Omniscient: viewers know more than the characters onscreen
Restricted: viewer's knowledge is dependent on a single character's knowledge of information
typical hollywood narrative structure
Character-centered, Plot-driven, usually linear in structure
- Events unfold in a cause-effect manner over a period of time and space
Responsibilities of cinematographer:
- Cinematographic properties of the shot (film stock, lighting, lenses)
- framing of the shot
- speed and length of shot
- special effects
What are the key shooting terms?
shot, take, and setup
shot is one uninterrupted run of the camera and the recording on film, video, or some other medium resulting from that run
take refers to the number of times a particular shot is taken
one camera position and everything associated with it
most important properties of lighting:
source, quality, direction, and style
two types of light sources:
lighting quality refers to whether the light is
- hard (shining directly creating crispy details) or
- soft (light comes from different directions creating soft details)
the direction in which the light originates from
Three point system:
lighting that comes from 3 different directions to create a good light ratio for the shot - three different directions:
key light (brightest light/ main light)
backlight (background light)
fill light (extra filler light)
horizontal movement of a camera mounted on a tripod
vertical movement of a camer a mounted on a tripod
a shot taken by a camera fixed to dolly so that it may move with the shot
camera moves toward the subject so the subject grows in the frame gaining significance
movement out from subject in shot, usually used for transitioning to another shot
Zoom camera movement
creates movement into a subject that appears artificial to audience, for stylistic effect
crane shot is made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that is mounted on a vehicle- create moving shot
film editor responsibilities
- spatial relationship between shots
- temporal relationship between shots
- the overall rhythm of the film
how does editor control rhythm of the film?
by varying the duration of the shots in relation to one another and thus controlling the speed and accents of film.
editing in order to tell the story as clearly, efficiently, and coherently as possible
- makes sure the film flows from shot to shot
- continuity editing is achieved by following master scene technique and maintaining screen direction through 180* system
master scene technique
technique based on principle of coverage - meaning that the scene is photographed with a variety of individual shots taken from various distances and angles
180 degree system:
can only shoot on one side of the camera angle, 180*.
what is role of sound design in a film?
creating the sound for a film
what are the different types of film sound?
Vocal sound :
dialogue - prerecorded or postrecorded speech of characters onscreen or offscreen of film
ambient sound which emanates from the background of the setting or environment being filmed (can include sound effects and foley sounds)
sounds that cannot be made on set so artists record sounds in the studio and add them to the film
music in film
music soundtrack added to the film from recording of live orchestra or studio music for films score
how is silence effective in films
silence in a movie can be effective when the filmmaker suppresses sounds we expect to offset our perception of the film
sound that originates from inside the films world
sound that clearly originates from off screen - not inside the films world
how is music used effectively in film?
music can be used effectively in film to contribute to the films narrative and help add to the story and the way we perceive it
what are the different types of movie actors ?
leading actors vs supporting actors
- Nonprofessional actors, cast to bring verisimilitude to a part
- personality (make the character around an actor) vs
- chameleon: actors who can play any type of part (find the perfect actor for that character)
-Actors who deliberately play against our expectations of their personae
that which is at risk as a consequence of the protagonist's pursuit of the goal.
something that is in way of protagonist obtaining a certain goal
a narratively significant objective pursued by the protagonist.
point of view editing
the process of editing different shots together in such a way that the resulting sequence makes us aware of the perspective or POV of a particular character or group of characters.
cutting on action
A continuity editing technique that smoothes the transition between shots portraying a single action from different camera angles.
• extreme long shot (emphasis on surrounding)
• long shot (emphasis on surrounding)
• medium long shot (shows knees up)
• medium shot (shows waist up)
• medium close up (chest to top of head)
• close up (close up of face)
• extreme close up (very small detail of subject)
different school of acting
editors affect on actors performance
- Editors have considerable power in shaping screen actors' performances
-Selects, arranges, and juxtaposes shot to cover errors
- Controls the duration of an actor's onscreen apperance
different approaches to a role actors may take
-Actors re-create recognizable or plausible human behavior for the camera
- Actors look like the characters should (costume, makeup, hairstyle)
- Actors think, speak, and move the way people would offscreen
non - naturalistic style
-Seem excessive, exaggerated, even overacted
- May employ strange or outlandish costumes, makeup, hairstyles
- Might aim for effects beyond the normal range of human experience
-Often intend to distance or estrange audiences from characters
- Often found in horror, fantasy, and action films
-Extemporizing or playing through a moment
-Often involves collaboration between actors and directors in creating stories, characters, and dialogue
-Improvisations often involve actors and directors creating stories and dialogue that may be incorporated into the script
- An extension of Stanislavski's emphasis on naturalistic performance
how does sound mixing affect film?
good sound mixing can create - "audio mise-en-scene" - (right balance dialogue, music, and sound effects)
- this helps with films continuity
what is sound mixing?
o Combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track synchronous with the picture
challenges of acting in movies
little time for acting rehearsal
- movies are shot out of sequence and fragmented
- actors must repeat the same line, action, or emotion (over and over)
how films are works of art and cultural documents?
it is a work of art but also a continuous representation of what our society is like and what our current cultural values are
how were women and african americans viewed in early cinema?
viewed as minorities and useless individuals to society
how have the representation of women and black people in movies changed over the past 100 years?
given more lead roles and parts in big movies and is seen by the general public as a sign of empowerment for the race/ gender
• Discontinuity editing plays with these conventions in an effort to engage and provoke the audience (through the use of techniques such as "jumping cuts")
• Parallel editing (Crosscutting) : two or more actions happening at the same time in different places
• Crosscutting: cutting together two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously at different locations.
the effect of perceiving such spatial relationships even when we are given minimal visual information or when we are presented with shots filmed at entirely different times and places is sometimes
fade in/ Fade out
transitional devices in which a shot fades in from a black field on black and white film or from a color field on a color film or fades out to a black or color field.
L - Cut
An L cut is a variant of a split edit film editing technique in which the audio from preceding scene overlaps the picture from the following scene, so that the audio cuts after the picture, and continues playing over the beginning of the next scene.
What are some of the considerations a cinematographer must take into
account when composing a shot?
Male gaze: (John Berger) a term used to talk about the fact that, in visual culture, heterosexual men are often the presumed audience
Women = objects
control the gaze to women
Men look at women, women watch themselves being looked at
(narcissism and voyeurism)
cultural system in which men have the power to manipulate meaning and values such that even women perceive their own subjugation as the natural order of things
1. The movie has to have at least two women in it,
2. who talk to each other,
3. about something besides a man
an outwardly unsympathetic protagonists pursuing a morally undesirable goal.
does not change significantly as the story progresses.
develops over the course of a story.
type of sound that is recorded during production
o Dialogue is the only type of film sound typically recorded during production
double/ dual system recording
sound is recorded on a medium separate from the picture
ADR ( automatic dialogue replacement)
process for synching dialogue rerecorded in postproduction to the moving lips of the actors on screen
art of making motion pictures
gender in classical hollywood (women)
virgin - wh*re complex
- usually only viewed as virgin or wh*re in roles
• 5 stereotypes of african americans in classical hollywood cinema
- black people slave who served white master
- overweight black women takes care of master
- ineffectual lazy black character
- a woman born of mixed race marriage, or sexual union, usually dies at the end of her story
- hyper masculine dangerous black man
the most prolific african american director of race movies
indie films of the early 70s that featured strong aggressive african american leads; sometimes battling racist white characters and institutions
members of sound crew
- production sound mixers
- sound recordists
- sound mixers
- microphone boom operators
creates movie story and writes the screenplay of movie
Beginning (act 1)
o sets up the story and established the normal world
Middle (act II)
o longest section that develops the story
End (act III)
o resolves the story
surprise vs suspense
- Surprise: taken unaware can be shocking. Our emotional response is generally short lived and can only happen in the same way once
- Suspense: anxiety brought on by partial uncertainty or even knowing what is going to happen.
meisner technique (acting)
Action oriented and external
Based on reacting to the others actors and environment
steven loski - developed method acting ??
actor acts as character throughout daily life in order to become that role
• Seeks the "truth" of character
• Is emotionally oriented internal
• Based on the actors own experienced and emotions
• Roots in Shakespearean performance
• Action oriented, rather than emotional
• Based on script analysis, conveying the text
who is sergei eisenstein and what did he create
invented montage development of rhythm and how a movie feels
What are some key differences between film vs digital cinematography?
The illusion of movement created by events that succeed each other rapidly, as when two adjacent lights flash on and off alternatively and we seem to see a single light shifting back and forth
The relationship and balance between illumination and shadow—the balance between key light and fill light.
If the ratio is high, shadows are deep; the result is called low-key lighting;
if the ratio is low, shadows are faint or non-existent and illumination is even; the result is called high-key lighting
The relationship between the frame's two dimensions: the width of the image related to its height.
A change of the point of focus from one subject to another within the same shot.
Rack focus guides our attention to a new clearly focused point of interest while blurring the previous subject in the shot
Rule of thirds
A grid pattern, when superimposed on the image, divides the image into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle ground, and background planes and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into additional elements.
A shot in which the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical positions so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance