Chapter 8: The Middle East
______ is generally not considered geographically part of the "Middle East."
The adhan—call to prayer—is performed ______ times per day to call Muslims to worship.
The European medieval lute is thought to derive from the Middle Eastern ______.
The Arabic musical system—mode —used as the basis for composition and improvisation is known as ______.
The Iranian ______ is a trapezoidal hammered zither.
The Persian musical system—mode —used as the basis for composition and improvisation is known as ______.
Arabic iqa-at—rhythmic modes—focus primarily on distinctions of ______.
______ are generally regarded as adherents to the "mystical" branch of Islam.
A "whirling dervish" is a reference to a ______.
ritual dance performed by Sufis
______ denotes a kind of heightened speech that is between speaking and singing.