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______ is generally not considered geographically part of the "Middle East."

Afghanistan

The adhan—call to prayer—is performed ______ times per day to call Muslims to worship.

five

The European medieval lute is thought to derive from the Middle Eastern ______.

ud

The Arabic musical system—mode —used as the basis for composition and improvisation is known as ______.

maqam

The Iranian ______ is a trapezoidal hammered zither.

santur

The Persian musical system—mode —used as the basis for composition and improvisation is known as ______.

dastgah

Arabic iqa-at—rhythmic modes—focus primarily on distinctions of ______.

meter

______ are generally regarded as adherents to the "mystical" branch of Islam.

Sufis

A "whirling dervish" is a reference to a ______.

ritual dance performed by Sufis

______ denotes a kind of heightened speech that is between speaking and singing.

Cantillation

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