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Africa is often considered in three cultural zones, including the ______, ______ and ______.

Pan-Arabic, Sahel, Sub-Saharan

The three musical manifestations of the "collective community" in Sub-Saharan Africa include ______, ______, and ______.

dance, call & response, polyrhythm

______ is a typical proverb expressing the Sub-Saharan African emphasis on social identity.

"I am, because we are"

______ is the predominant type of instrumental music organization found in sub-Saharan Africa.


A "talking drum" is able to communicate by ______.

mimicking the tonal contour and speech rhythm of a language

The ______ is the primary instrument of Palm Wine "Highlife" music.


A unique aspect of pygmy music performance is the use of ______.

vocal polyrhythm

The ______ is a lamellophone, a type of idiophone with lamellae - tongues - that sound when flexed and released.

mbira dza vadzimu

As compared with other sub-Saharan African xylophone traditions, the akadinda is unique for its ______.

triple-interlocking technique

The ______ is a lute-harp, a type of chordophone common to the Mandinka people of West Africa.


The primary role of a ______ in Mandinka society - West Africa - is as an oral historian.


______ is a style of vocal ensemble performance found primarily among the Zulu of South Africa.


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