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Pan-Arabic, Sahel, Sub-Saharan

Africa is often considered in three cultural zones, including the ______, ______ and ______.

dance, call & response, polyrhythm

The three musical manifestations of the "collective community" in Sub-Saharan Africa include ______, ______, and ______.

"I am, because we are"

______ is a typical proverb expressing the Sub-Saharan African emphasis on social identity.


______ is the predominant type of instrumental music organization found in sub-Saharan Africa.

mimicking the tonal contour and speech rhythm of a language

A "talking drum" is able to communicate by ______.


The ______ is the primary instrument of Palm Wine "Highlife" music.

vocal polyrhythm

A unique aspect of pygmy music performance is the use of ______.

mbira dza vadzimu

The ______ is a lamellophone, a type of idiophone with lamellae (tongues) that sound when flexed and released.

triple-interlocking technique

As compared with other sub-Saharan African xylophone traditions, the akadinda is unique for its ______.


The ______ is a lute-harp, a type of chordophone common to the Mandinka people of West Africa.


The primary role of a ______ in Mandinka society (West Africa) is as an oral historian.


______ is a style of vocal ensemble performance found primarily among the Zulu of South Africa.

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