History of Creativity 2 Test 2
Terms in this set (92)
A directional change in thinking. 1550-1750
The way you THINK and the METHOD of discovery.
1. Our world follows natural laws
2. Changed from deductive thinking to inductive thinking
3. Applied throughout social life, education, and ordinary discourse
seek to UNDERSTAND what nature is like
seek to MANIPULATE the world for human benefit
Method: deductive logic
Motion: Rest is a natural state
Matter: earth, air, fire, water
Heaven and Earth: Heaven different fro earth. Heaven is light airy and perfect
Location of Stars and Planets: On progressively higher spheres
Contradicted how they interpreted the Bible.
-Revised Copernican model
-All planets, but earth, revolve around the sun.
The sun revolves around the earth
-Corrected some of the problems of Copernicus and Brahe.
-A strongly pythagorean viewpoint.
-Kepler's law of Planetary Motion
1564-1642. Openly defied concepts of Aristotle.
-Discovered Jupiters moons.
-phases of Venus
-"Math is the language of the world."
- "Scripture is a book about how to go to Heaven. Not how heaven goes."
-Catholic Church made him take back his Statement
Sir Frances Bacon
-Lord Chancellor of England
-Father of the Scientific Revolution
-The Inductive (Scientific) Method
-Emphasis on practical, useful knowledge
-Argued for experimentation
-Beware of "idols"
-compared people to ants, spiders, and bees
-ants: store up info for no real benefit
-spider: make web only stuff from inside themselves
-bees: make things from surroundings that are beneficial to the world
-father of analytical geometry
"i think, therefore i am" Theoretical science
-Reductionism: reducing the problem to smaller and smaller things at which the problem can be solved.
-formulated the law of gravity
-"Greatest Scientist Ever"
-three laws of motion
-applied laws to universe
-"...standing of the shoulders of giants."
-On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals
-Described the functioning of the heart and circulatory system
-Disproved Galen's theories
-Father of modern chemistry
-Established the concept of quantification
Royal Society of London
-Founded in 1660
-A group dedicated to Bacon's inductivism, but to DO, not just philosophize about it.
-Began with 12 members including:
-Motto: "On the words of no one"
Age of Enlightenment
-the "age of reason"
-progressive, rationalistic, humanistic worldview
-spokesman=rising middle class
-good life is here on earth
-humans are good
Enlightenment and Religion
-Reason is more important than faith.
-Society can get better as science guides humankind.
"Slippery Slope of Religion"
-God is like a watchmaker - makes the watch, winds it up, then sits back and lets it take its way.
-Universe is run by rules est by God, but God is distant
-Anti-clerical and skeptical of organized religion
-Expected ethical, enlightened behavior of all people
-Learned from Galileo.
- Natural Scientist and Political Scientist.
-Believed in the divine right of kings.
-He backed absolute monarchy.
● Mankind is inherently savage and needs a king.
-Mankind wants peace and freedom and forms a social contract (government) to protect themselves
-Believed Early man was free and peaceful, and could reason (gives free will and sets man above animals)
-But constant threats to peace and freedom
-Began cooperations (government)
-Required that some freedom be surrendered for the sake of civility (rule of law)
Hobbes vs. Locke
BOTH-went back to the early man
HOBBES-divine right (of kings)
LOCKE-people defined what government was
-"Essay on Man and Essay on Criticism"
-Cautioned enlightenment thinkers to beware of too much learning
Criticism of the English People. "A little learning is a dangerous thing." God will take care of us.
-Wrote "Criticism of Christianity in Politics"
-Believed Christianity brought down the Roman Empire.
-----With a nAnti-religious bias
-Name for an enlightenment intellectual
-Spread through England to France through Voltaire
-Optimistic future (Hopeful hipsters of the Enlightenment)
-Three ways for improvement:
1. Know natural world
2. Overcome ignorance
3. Overcome human cruelty and violence
-A philosopher of the French Enlightenment.
-Wrote "Candide" mentions the Lisbon Earthquake
-lived in exile in London until he moved to a chateau on the French/Swiss border
-Lived at the court of Frederick II of Prussia.
-Became disillusioned by the presence of suffering in the world and and religion became an ATHIEST
-Against organized religion.
-"I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
Introduced the concept of the "Nobel Savage"(instinctive goodness).
● Man was originally in the state of Noble Savage but was corrupted by civilization.
● Laid the foundation for the French Revolution.
● Wrote "the Social Contract"
- Mankind is a noble savage that is inherently good and has government to improve benefits in life
Father of the transcendentalist movement.
act as if your actions would become a moral maxim for all others at all times.
-developed capitalism as an economic system.
-wrote "wealth of nations"
-role of self-interest and laissez-faire
Enlightened Despots vs. Abosolute Rulers
1.Accepted change to improve country
1.Reluctant to change
Effects of the Enlightenment on England and France
-ENGLAND: Limited Monarchy. This made the colonies mad because they were not treated like Mother England. -Resulted in Civil War.
-FRANCE: Absolute Monarchy. This will lead to a revolution.
-Others Countries: rulers become "Enlightened Despots."
Peter the Great
-Built a navy copied after the dutch
-New capital - St. Petersburg (city of bones)
-Took over much land
Frederick II of Prussia
-Ran away as a child
-saw his best friend executed by his father.
-More interested in the arts than military school.
-Invited Voltaire to live in his court.
-"The Philosopher King"
-Composed 100 sonatas and 4 symphonies
-Wrote an anti-Machiavellian book
Catherine II The Great
- Wasn't born as a Catherine or a Russian.
-Selected to be bride of Peter III the next emperor of Russia.
-Her and her husband, Peter, were very different in their thinking, tastes, and opinions.
- Creatively kicked her husband, Peter, out of command of Russia and took control herself.
-She obtained support of the army and became empress.
-Published Diderot's encyclopedia.
King Gustavas III
- Took over as King of Sweden as a result of the Caps and the Hats not getting along.
- Helped spark a period of brilliant literature in Sweden.
- Was murdered by swedish nobility.
King Charles III
- Considered to be the most Enlightened of any Bourbon ruler.
- Created many public works in Spain, including sewers, roads, etc.
- Entered the American side of the American Revolution and regained Florida.
-Empress of Austria due to the PRAGMATIC SANCTION
-Only child of her father.
-Mother of Mary Antoinette and Joseph II
-When her husband died dressed in black until she herself dies.
- Was attcked by Fredrick of Prussia on assumption of her weakness.
-One the the most successful leaders of Hapsburg
Joseph II of Austria
- Mother allowed him to conclude a treaty with Fredrick of Prussia and Catherine of Russia over Poland, called Partitions of Polland
- His sister is Marie Antoinette
-Correctly predicted the French Revolution. ----Freed the Serfs
-reduced the power of the catholic church
-favored arts in the Courts (mozart and beethoven)
Viennese Classical Style (Music)
In Vienna, Austria
Took From Germany=Structure
Exposition (themes and transitions)
Development (key changes and polyphony)
Recapitulation (changed themes)
-Generation older than Mozart and Beethoven
-Included jokes in his symphonies
-started the trend of naming the symphony
-Father figure to mozart and Beethoven
-Wrote in most genres
-relationship with Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-At age 5 composed his first musical pieces
-Always struggled for money
-Completed over 50 musical works in ten years
-Operas were profitable and popular
-Some in Italian, some in German
-Marriage of Figaro: Overture
-The Magic Flute: Queen of the Night
Ten Year Rule
Mozart said you have to
-spend ten years dedicated to your profession to become expert in field, otherwise you'd be mediocre
Ludwig van Beethoven
-Haydn helped him learn to compose
-Father beat him at a young age to be like Mozart.
-First wrote in classical genre, then the romantic genre because he went deaf.
-Made the Piano Popular
-"minuete" classical piece
-"moonlight sonata"-romantic piece
-5th-tied all movements into one theme
-"ode to Joy"
-Bridged the themes together
The American Revolution
Seven years war=gave way to Revolution.
Britain won - kept troops in 13 colonies.
issues Provoked Colonies to Revolt
1. Proclamation of 1763-cant go west of Appalachian Mtns
2. Sugar Act 1764-tax on molasses from outside Britain
3. Stamp Act 1765-tax on paper
4. Townsend Acts 1767-tax on imported goods
5. Tea Act 1773-East India tea company has low prices
6. Intolerable Acts 1774-blockade of harbor took away Massachusetts legislature=Military control
Boston Tea Party 1773-dumped tea into harbor
Govt can never have a right to destroy, enslave, or impoverish the subjuects
First Continental Congress 1774
-A rep. from every state but Georgia came.
-Decided to stop trade with Britain.
-Advised colonists to prepare for war.
Battle at Lexington and Concord
-Paul Revere signaled "part sea part land"
"shot heard around the world"
-British tried to destroy ammo cache in Massachusetts
Second Continental Congress
-Created continental army
-Attempted to reconcile (not all colonies were ready for revolution)
Second Session of the Continental Congress
-They were the govt
-Draft of Declaration of Independence June 11-28, 1776
-Ben Frank simplified some of the words to make it easier to understand
War of Independence
How did they win?
-Method of Warfare
-many veterans fighting,
americans were passionate about reason for fighting
-Est principles of liberty (Bill of Rights)
-Republic is all three combined (Monarchy, democracy, theocracy)
The US Constitution
-Efficiency vs. checks and balances
-states rights vs. federal power
-power for the majority vs. rights of the minority
-slavery limited to the South
-James Madison: "father of the Constitution"
-educated at French military school
-moved quickly though the ranks of military
Code of Napoleon
Bank of France
Centralized state govt
Support of Science
Sell of to Loisianna
Discovered Rosetta Stone
Napoleon as First Consul
People wanted stronger govt than the Directory
Napoleon as Emperor
After 6 yrs of power/control
territorial expansion and war
Invasion of England
the battle of Trafalgar
New Challenges under Napoleon
Spain's Rise of Nationalism
the Continental System
Defeat in Russia
only 100,000 men returned; they started losing every battle thereafter
Elba and the Hundred Days
Forced to abdicate - Made Emperor of Elba
Escapes - Marches to Paris
Leader again for 100 days
Dies after being sent to Mt St Helen
Congress of Vienna
Return to absolutism
French LOVE Napoleon
English HATE Napoleon
emphasized personal message, emotion rather than reason
nature viewed mystically
Appreciation of the past "The good ol' past"
lots of dynamics,
felt and not reason,
longer symphony and
the ability to PLAY the symphony
Story (of the music)
story notes to read as the music was played
Lots of drama and rhythm,
Motifs-section of melody of theme
Told stories in his music
Lived in Paris-born in Poland
Short pieces to allow communication
"Hungarian Rhapsody 2"
Greatest showman ever
originator of new kind of opera
"Leitmotif"-involoved the orchestra
"Ride of the Valkyrie"
Peter Ilych Tchaikovsky
Used French style in music for ballets
Ballets most famous
"Romeo and Juliet"
Moussorgsky, Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov-called the Handful
Russian Easter Overture
Flight of the Bees
Considered Romantic because it told stories
● Painted 3rd of May 1808
● Paintings changed after napoleon invaded spain
-His late words reflect this dark time.
● Romantic period artist
● "Lady Liberty leading the People"
● "The Death of Sardanapalus"
Joseph Mallord William Turner
"The Slave Ship"
"The fighting temeraire"
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Lit.)
idea: Killing yourself for love, which many boys followed
"The Sorrows of Young Werther"
Sir Walter Scott
Historical Novel - new genre
Lady of the Lake
War and Peace
Freed his Serfs
involved in French politics
Hunchback of Notre Dame
-Imitated Scott's style
-Count of Monte Cristo
-Man in the Iron Mask
William Woodsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge
● Invented a new style of poetry:
- lyrical ballad.
- Combined simple subjects with a wonder of exoticism.
"Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
-"The Flying Dutchman"
"The Wandering Jew"
Percy Bysshe Shelley
-Friends with Byron
-Married Mary Wolletonecraft-wrote Frankenstein
● Emphasis on Ultra Beauty and Nature
● Aimed at the wealthy class. (was a form of entertainment for the wealthy)
● Pastel colors, Greek gods and graceful lovers all bathed in the beauty of nature.
● Return to simplicity, beauty, and themes from the ancient world
-"New Classical Period"
● Bold, simpler colors,
-Artist communicates with the audience
-Sought the perfect society
● Beauty and Symmetry, but strict
● Rules were valuable and strictly adhered to.
Jean Antoine Watteau
● Painted "Pilgrimage to Cythera"
Joseph marie vien
"The Cupid Seller"