963 terms

New Academic Word list (NAWL) Master List

This is a sublist of the Browne, Culligan and Phillips (2013) New Academic Word List developed from the academic subsection of the Cambridge English Corpus, the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE), and the British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus. For more information and the full list please visit: http://www.newacademicwordlist.org/
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Terms in this set (...)

repertoire
(n.) a collection of skills or accomplishments.
obtain
(v.) to get
distribution
(n.) - in statistics: an arrangement of values showing frequency of occurrence - in engineering: the way in which the fuel-air mixture is supplied to each cylinder of an engine - in commerce: delivery of products or services.
parameter
(n.) a characteristic or constant factor, a limit.
aspect
(n.) a quality, part, or element
dynamic
(adj.) always active or changing; in physics: a force related to motion
impact
(n.) a striking effect or result (v.) to hit with force
domain
(n.) a field of action, thought or influence; an area of knowledge
publish
(v.) to print in a book, journal or online
denote
(v.) be a name or symbol for
authority
(n.) people in power; an expert whose views are accepted by most.
semantic
(adj.) the different meanings of words
par
(n.) the usual amount
ion
(n.) a charged atom
matrix
(n.) a substance, situation, or environment in which something has its origin - in math: an arrangement of numbers in rows and columns
linear
(adj.) made of lines
cognitive
(adj.) the process of knowing and remembering
graph
(n.) a diagram that shows how variables are related.
correlation
(n.) a measure of the relationship between two variables
linguistic
(adj.) belonging to language
acid
(n.) a substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, and turns blue litmus red. e.g. lemon juice
induce
(v.) to cause, to persuade
velocity
(n.) speed in a given direction
interval
(n.) the distance between two points, numbers or times
discourse
(n.) talk, conversation
finite
(adj.) having limits; lasting for a limited time
stimulus
(n.) something that makes a change.
vector
(n.) a quantity that has both size and direction.
electron
(n.) a negatively charged particle
receptor
(n.) a device that receives information; in physiology: a nerve ending that changes stimuli into impulses
theorem
(n.) a statement that can be proved
algorithm
(n.) a logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a problem
fluid
(n.) a material that can easily flow. e.g. water
developmental
(adj.) concerning the development or growth of a thing or person
bound
(v.) to go to a specified place; to jump
molecular
(adj.) about or caused by molecules
transformation
(n.) a change
spatial
(adj.) about space
coefficient
(n.) a number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression.
translation
(n.) changing from one form to another. e.g. changing from one language to another
membrane
(n.) a thin covering of tissue.
neuron
(n.) a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
simulation
(n.) a copy; a method that is used to study and analyze the characteristics of the real world
lexical
(adj.) about words
regime
(n.) a system of management; a form of government
variance
(n.) the amount of difference; a statistic that measures the variability of a distribution.
molecule
(n.) two or more atoms chemically combined
marker
(n.) something that is easy to recognize or identify
empirical
(adj.) based on observation or experiment
robot
(n.) a mechanical creature that acts like a human
statistical
(adj.) about statistics
vowel
(n.) a speech sound; a, e , i, o, u and sometimes y
equilibrium
(n.) a state of balance
intensity
(n.) great energy, strength, concentration; in physics: Intensity = Power/Unit of area
regression
(n.) going back; in statistics: a type of correlational procedure that focuses on predicting the values of an outcome based on its correlation with another variable.
diagnosis
(n.) a decision a doctor makes based on a patients history and the results of an examination.
identification
(n.) the state of being identified; something that identifies a person
node
(n.) an intersection or junction point in a network; a part on a plant where a new leaf grows
candidate
(n.) a person who is selected by others as a contestant for an office or honor
partial
(adj) not complete; favoring one side over another
correlate
(v.) to show the relationship between two items or events.
mortality
(n.) the quality or state of being human and being able to die
antibody
(n.) a defense provided by the body against disease
temporal
(adj.) concerning time
particle
(n.) a very small piece of something
duration
(n.) the length of time that something lasts
behavioral
(adj.) concerning the way someone acts
consumption
(n.) how much is spent on things; the process of eating and drinking
bilingual
(n.) a person who speaks two languages
sensitivity
(n.) being sensitive; in physiology: the ability of an organism or part of an organism to react to stimuli; in electronics: the ability of a radio device to react to incoming signals
similarity
(n.) the degree to which people or things are the same
optimal
(adj.) best
explicit
(adj.) definite, clearly stated
mutation
(n.) a change; in genetics: any event that changes genetic structure
colonial
(adj.) concerning living in a colony
spectrum
(n.) the wavelengths of colors from red to violet
phonological
(adj.) concerning sound
nucleus
(n.) control center of a cell
onset
(n.) the beginning
integration
(n.) bringing things together into a whole
dominant
(adj.) strongest
pathway
(n.) a route; in biochemistry: a sequence of reactions
coordinate
(v.) to bring order and organization to something; (n.) in maths: any of the magnitudes that serve to define the position of a point or line by reference to a fixed figure or system of lines.
calculation
(n.) the answer to a sum; the act of calculating
precede
(v.) to go before
subset
(n.) a small set that is part of a larger set
syntactic
(adj.) grammatical
orientation
(n.) the ability to locate oneself in one's environment with reference to time, place, and people
proposition
(n.) an idea; a suggestion
inequality
(n.) not the same; in maths: a statement that compares two quantities using <, >, ≤,≥, or ≠
identical
(adj.) the same in every way
prevalence
(adj.) widespread, common, general
differential
(adj.) difference; diversity
generalize
(v.) to make a common idea or conclusion from facts
beam
(n.) a long piece of metal or wood; a line of light or energy
pulse
(n.) beat of the heart
norm
(n.) an established standard of performance or behavior
trait
(n.) a characteristic
prediction
(n.) a statement of what will happen next.
correspondence
(n.) communication by writing; a similarity
essentially
(adv.) basically, primarily
syllable
(n.) a unit of speech
chromosome
(n.) cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied and passed to the next generation.
infect
(v.) to give someone a disease
magnetic
(adj.) having the properties of a magnet, being able to attract.
configuration
(n.) a shape or outline; a method of arrangement
numerical
(adj.) includes numbers
namely
(adv.) that is to say, specifically
intermediate
(adj.) between
transmission
(n.) an electronic signal that has been sent by radio waves; a force that has been transferred from one machine to another
dose
(n.) an amount of medicine to be taken at any one time
occurrence
(n.) something that happens, an event
maternal
(adj.) having to do with being a mother
axis
(n.) a line about which a rotating body, such as the earth, turns.
rational
(adj.) sensible; based on facts
locus
(n.) a place or location; in genetics: the location of a gene on a chromosome
elite
(adj.) superior; (n.) a superior group of people
approximation
(n.) almost, but not exactly; more or less
thesis
(n.) a long essay; a position taken in an argument supported by a set of reasons
sin
(n.) a bad act; (v.) to do something bad
classification
(n.) objects or people put into categories with shared characteristics.
threshold
(n.) a level or point at which something would start or stop happening.
syndrome
(n.) a group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
comparative
(adj.) similar to
activate
(v.) to make something to start working
adolescent
(adj.) 12-18 years old
vocabulary
(n.) the words that a person knows
utterance
(n.) something that is said
encode
(v.) to change a message or information into code
facilitate
(v.) to make easier
incidence
(n.) the rate that something happens
induction
(n.) bringing about, or causing
trajectory
(n.) the path followed by an object moving through space
manuscript
(n.) a document, a piece of writing
commonly
(adv.) usually
grammatical
(adj.) concerning grammatical rules
accuracy
(n.) correctness or precision.
amplitude
(n.) the breadth, width or largeness of something; in electronics: the maximum deviation of an alternating current from its average value.
adaptation
(n.) the process of changing
cortex
(n.) the outer part of an organ or structure
minimal
(adj.) the smallest possible
systematic
(adj.) having a system or plan
horizontal
(adj.) flat or level
synthesis
(n.) building something complex from simple parts
projection
(n.) a part that sticks out; an image on a screen; a prediction
diameter
(n.) the distance across the center of an object
cone
(n.) a 3D shape with a circular base; a part of the eye
dependence
(n.) the need of someone or something
organism
(n.) a living thing
emergence
(n.) the process of emerging/coming out
overlap
(v.) to cover something else
substitution
(n.) a person or thing acting or serving in place of another; (v.) to put (a person or thing) in the place of another.
explicitly
(adv.) very clear; nothing hidden
evident
(adj.) plain, clear
conceptual
(adj.) characterized by concepts or the forming of concepts
detection
(n.) the act of discovering something
interact
(v.) an action that is answered by a reaction, verbal or physical
neural
(adj.) about the nerves or nervous system
chronic
(adj.) over a long time; serious
integral
(adj.) part of something
enzyme
(n.) a protein made by cells
conference
(n.) a meeting or series of meetings for discussion and exchange of information
conception
(n.) an idea or notion; the first stage in pregnancy
ex
a prefix meaning "out of," "from," or "not"
ideology
(n.) a set of beliefs by groups or individuals
sperm
(n.) male sex cell
quantitative
(adj.) the describing or measuring of quantity.
sphere
(n.) a round 3D object. e.g. a ball
instability
(n.) not stable; changeable
mediate
(v.) to bring about an agreement between persons or groups, act as a helper
specification
(n.) a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
classify
(v.) arrange or order by classes or categories
physician
(n.) a medical doctor
computation
(n.) a calculation; a method of computing
oral
(adj.) by mouth
mid
(adj.) at (or near) the middle point
indicator
(n.) an instrument that shows conditions in a machine, such as temperature, speed, pressure; in chemistry: a compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base
variant
(adj.) differing, especially from something of the same general kind.
evolutionary
(adj.) concerning evolution
feedback
(n.) a response to a message; information about a person's behavior
collective
(adj.) formed by collection; (n.) an organisation
arbitrary
(adj.) unsupported
fraction
(n.) a part of a whole.
estimation
(n.) a rough calculation; an opinion
nonlinear
(adj.) not in a line
deviation
(n.) not standard or normal; in statistics: the difference between one of a set of values and some fixed value, usually the mean of the set.
compact
(adj.) packed together; closely united; small
diagram
(n.) a drawing intended to explain how something works
tropical
(adj.) hot and humid; near to the equator
morphology
(n.) the study of the forms and structures of plants, animals and words
thereby
(adv.) by that means; because of that
syntax
(n.) the study of a system, such as the system of words in a sentence
defect
(n.) a problem; a fault
separation
(n.) a line that seperates; a point of parting; a gap
convergence
(n.) coming together
sufficiently
(adv.) enough
valid
(adj.) sound; just; well-founded
interface
(n.) a shared boundary between two persons or systems through which information is communicated.
radiation
(n.) energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays, waves or particles.
vertical
(adj.) a line going up/down; not horizontal
embed
(v.) to fix something inside something else
acute
(adj.) very serious or severe; in maths: an angle < 90 degrees
utility
(n.) being useful; a public service such as gas, water, or electricity that is used by everyone
complement
(n.) something needed to complete or make perfect
leaf
(n.) the green part of a tree or plant
verbal
(adj.) concerning words
aggregate
(adj.) total amount
equality
(n.) the idea that all people are the same
corpus
(n.) a body; in linguistics: a body of words
organ
(n.) - in biology: a grouping of tissues into a structure such as a heart or kidney
gradient
(n.) a measure of how steep a road is; in science: the rate of change of something such as temperature or pressure
methodology
(n.) a system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules that guide a discipline.
entity
(n.) something that is real
tumor
(n.) a mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably
fiber
(n.) a thin, threadlike part of an animal hair or plant tissue; an artificial thread; body cells that form muscles and nerves; a food substance
paradigm
(n.) a set of ideas that are used for understanding or explaining something
psychology
(n.) the study of the mind and how it affects behaviour
infinite
(adj.) without an end
diverse
(adj.) very different from each other
diagnostic
(adj.) finding a problem, such as a physical or mental problem
continuity
(n.) a situation in which something happens or exists for a long time without stopping or changing
variability
(n.) the fact that something is not always the same; in statistics: the degree to which scores in a frequency distribution depart from the central value
outer
(adj.) on or around something
notation
(n.) a set of written signs or shapes that are used in music or mathematics
probe
(n.) a system or piece of equipment that is used to get information; in medicine: a long thin instrument used for looking inside your body
migration
(n.) the process by which people or animals move to another place
mathematical
(adj.) concerning mathematics
likelihood
(n.) the chance that something might happen
comparable
(adj.) similar to another thing, so that it is reasonable to compare them
magnitude
(n.) size or importance
array
(n.) a large group of people or things; a regular order or arrangement; in maths: a series of figures.
inclusion
(n.) something or someone that is added or included
emission
(n.) a substance, especially a gas, that goes into the air
inference
(n.) an opinion that you form based on information you already have
non
a prefix meaning 'not', e.g. non-alcoholic
consciousness
(n.) awake, able to hear, see, and think
simultaneously
(adv.) at the same time as
disturbance
(n.) a noise or something that stops you from continuing what you were doing
hierarchy
(n.) a system for organizing people or things according to their importance
rotation
(n.) movement in a circle around a central point
validity
(n.) how true something is; in statistics: the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure.
periodic
(adj.) happening regularly, but not frequently
archaeology
(n.) the study of ancient societies by looking at old tools, bones and buildings
atom
(n.) the smallest unit; consisting of a nucleus (protons and neutrons) with electrons travelling around it
modification
(n.) a small change to a machine, system, or plan
partition
(n.) a wall, screen, or piece of glass used to separate one area from another
initiate
(v.) to start
autonomy
(n.) the power to make independant decisions
inhibit
(v.) to make it difficult for a process to start or continue in a normal way
consonant
(n.) a speech sound; any letter in the alphabet that is not a vowel.
biology
(n.) the study of living things
scenario
(n.) an outline; an imagined sequence of events in a plan or project
conditional
(adj.) depending on
contrary
(adj.) different; opposite
discrete
(adj.) separate; composed of distinct parts
classroom
(n.) a room in school where you learn.
morphological
(n.) the study of form and structure
lateral
(adj.) on the side; moving sideways
injection
(n.) a way to put (inject) a drug or another substance into your body
effectiveness
(n.) how well something works
insect
(n.) a small animal with 6 legs such as a bee, ant or fly.
logical
(adj.) sensible; reasonable
calculus
(n.) a type of mathematics used for calculating such things as the slopes of curves
usage
(n.) the way something is used
longitudinal
(adj.) going from the top to the bottom of something
neutral
(adj.) not involved; without strong feeling; without electrical charge; not acidic or akaline
marginal
(adj.) very small; on the edge; not important
client
(n.) someone who pays for a service
characterization
(n.) the way someone or something is described
ethical
(adj.) morally right or wrong
superior
(adj.) better; higher quality
approximate
(adj.) about; not exact but close
composer
(n.) a music writer
singular
(adj.) one
converge
(v.) to come together
fetal
(adj.) concerning a fetus, an unborn baby
comprehension
(n.) ability to understand
implicit
(adj.) not stated directly
span
(n.) the amount of time something lasts
oxygen
(n.) a gas in the air that has no smell or taste, and that all animals need to breathe
formulation
(n.) the development of a plan, system, or proposal
dialect
(n.) a way of speaking a language that is used only in a particular area or by a particular group
colony
(n.) a group of people or animals of the same type; a country controlled by another country
immune
(adj.) not affected by something, such as a disease
loop
(adj.) a round shape
algebra
(n.) a type of mathematics that uses letters and symbols in place of numbers
derivative
(n.) something that has developed or been obtained from something else
appendix
(n.) a short tube joined to the intestine; extra information at the end of a book
overview
(n.) a description of the main features of something
diffusion
(n.) the movement of light in many directions
specimen
(n.) an example of something, especially of a plant or an animal; a small amount of blood or urine
assert
(v.) to state firmly or confidently
widespread
(adj.) happening or existing in many places; affecting many people
competence
(n.) the ability to do something in a satisfactory or effective way
residual
(adj.) concerning the last little bit, after the rest has gone or ended
fusion
(n.) when different styles, ideas or designs combine to form something new; in physics: when atoms combine to produce nuclear energy
conservation
(n.) the management of land and water in ways that stop it from being damaged
constrain
(v.) to limit; to force someone to do something they don't want to do
virtue
(n.) a good quality
differentiate
(v.) to see or show a difference between things
amino
(n.) a substance that combines to form the structure of proteins
partially
(adv.) in part; in some degree; not wholly
preliminary
(adj.) before
philosophical
(adj.) concerning philosophy
pre
a prefix meaning 'before'
transaction
(n.) an exchange; in business this usually involves money
prominent
(adj.) being important or well known
indigenous
(adj.) living or growing naturally in an area, not brought from somewhere else
render
(v.) to cause someone or something to behave in a particular way, or to enter into a particular condition
independently
(adv.) act in an independent manner
symbolic
(adj.) representing a larger quality
utilize
(v.) to use something practically for a particular purpose
physiological
(adj.) concerning how the body functions
indirect
(adj.) having a path that is not straight or direct
calcium
(n.) a substance important for human and animal health, particularly for making bones and teeth
assembly
(n.) a group of machine parts that fit together to form a tool or machine
strictly
(adv.) restricted to something
unity
(n.) being in full agreement; whole
psychiatric
(adj.) concerning or used in psychiatry
critique
(n.) a review of the quality of a work
differentiation
(n.) a discrimination between things as different and distinct
closure
(n.) the act of closing something
minimize
(v.) to make something as small as possible
selective
(adj.) choosing through thoughtful comparison
availability
(n.) the state of being possible to use or obtain
depict
(v.) to describe someone or something
cue
(n.) a word or action during a stage play to tell an actor to speak
parental
(adj.) concerning, or provided by, a parent
ritual
(n.) performed as part of a formal ceremony
fertility
(n.) the state of a female being able to produce young
adjacent
(adj.) being close or near to a border, wall, or point
readily
(adv.) in a quick and easy manner
observer
(n.) someone who sees or notices something
inhibition
(n.) the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ; the act of blocking or holding back
questionnaire
(n.) a series of written questions, given to many people, in order to learn information, facts and opinions
generalization
(n.) reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
qualitative
(adj.) concerning how good something is, rather than quantity
tense
(adj.) stretched tight and stiff
transcription
(n.) something written
locally
(adj.) concerning the area where you are
nutrient
(n.) a chemical, food, that animals and plants need to live, develop, and be healthy
reinforce
(v.) to strengthen
statistically
(adv.) with respect to statistics
simulate
(v.) to look, feel, or behave like something; to copy
dense
(adj.) very thick
ecology
(n.) the study of plants, animals, people, and their environments
null
(adj.) having no impact
terminal
(n.) the end of something
informal
(adj.) a relaxed (not formal) feeling
discharge
(v.) to release someone or something
adaptive
(adj.) able to adjust and meet the needs of new conditions
ecological
(adj.) concerning the environment, plants, or animals
protocol
(n.) a set of rules; computers use protocol so they can exchange information
progressive
(adj.) believing in modern ideas and social or political change
aesthetic
(adj.) concerning the sense of artistic beauty
exploit
(v.) to use something or someone selfishly or unethically
agriculture
(n.) the science of farming
practitioner
(n.) a person working in a profession such as medicine
occupation
(n.) a career or regular job
equivalence
(n.) when something is equal to something else i.e. they are worth the same amount
pragmatic
(adj.) dealing with problems in a reasonable, practical manner
productivity
(n.) the rate at which something is made or done
arrow
(n.) a symbol to give direction; a long piece of wood shot from a bow
reproduce
(v.) to make a copy of something
commentary
(n.) a discussion of a written work or event, usually to give greater explanation or opinion on it
residue
(n.) left over after part or most is taken away
unstable
(adj.) likely to move from its position or fall
consensus
(n.) a decision that is shared by most of the members of a group
simplify
(v.) to make something easier to do, use or understand
radius
(n.) a given area or a range around a certain point; a line from the center of a circle to its edge
artificial
(adj.) something that is made by people; not natural
harvest
(n.) the time that you bring the crops in from the fields; (v.) to bring in crops
suicide
(n.) the act of purposely killing yourself because you no longer wish to live
pi
(n.) the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle; approximately equal to 3.14
monkey
(n.) an animal, closely related to humans, that lives in trees
habitat
(n.) the natural place, or type of place, where a plant or animal lives
assignment
(n.) work that you must do as part of a course of study or as part of your job
replicate
(v.) to repeat something, such as an experiment, study or process
mechanical
(adj.) using or having to do with machines
disability
(n.) a condition that limits a person's ability to do something
cattle
(n.) cows or bulls on a farm
purely
(adv.) for no other reason; only and completely
contradiction
(n.) the act of saying that something is not true or very different
scatter
(v.) to make things separate and go in different directions
problematic
(adj.) being difficult to deal with or fix
correction
(n.) a change to make something right
linguistics
(n.) the study of human languages
hormone
(n.) a chemical produced by the body to control some function
primitive
(adj.) being of an early time period in the past
ethics
(n.) the moral principles, standards, and rules for deciding what is right and wrong
accumulation
(n.) the gathering of something over a period of time
static
(adj.) being unchangeable or unmovable
consent
(v.) to agree or allow to do something
substrate
(n.) a substance which a catalyst or enzyme has an effect on
straightforward
(adj.) easy to do or understand; not complicated
discrimination
(n.) the ability to recognize the difference between things; treating different groups of people unfairly
separately
(adv.) not with another person or thing
randomize
(v.) to arrange in a random order
sensory
(adj.) referring to the five senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch)
confine
(v.) to keep something or someone within a limited area so it cannot escape
peripheral
(adj.) not connected to the main or important part of something
mineral
(n.) a substance naturally formed in the ground
spontaneous
(adj.) something that happens on its own, seemingly without cause
reliability
(n.) a quality that makes someone or something dependable and deserving of trust
clone
(v.) to make an exact copy of a living thing
orient
(v.) to focus your attention or efforts on something
elaborate
(adj.) to be made or done with great care or with much detail
nominal
(adj.) in name or thought but not reality
insert
(v.) to put something in something
reproduction
(n.) the process that produces the next generation
dominance
(n.) the state of being more powerful, successful, or important than others
allocation
(n.) a share set aside for a specific purpose; distribution according to a plan
lung
(n.) an organ used to breathe
productive
(adj.) doing a lot of work and achieving a lot
decay
(v.) to be slowly broken down by natural processes
conscious
(adj.) able to understand what is happening around you
thickness
(n.) the distance between the opposite edges of something; how thick something is
transmit
(v.) to broadcast by using electrical signals to a radio or TV
conceive
(v.) to think of, or create, something new (e.g. idea, child)
offspring
(n.) the child of a person or the young of a plant or animal
resemble
(v.) to be similar to someone or something in looks or manner
circulation
(n.) the movement of blood through the body
correctly
(adv.) in an accurate or correct manner
necessity
(n.) something that you must have or do
metaphor
(n.) a figure of speech based on analogy
tract
(n.) a large stretch of land
liver
(n.) a large organ in the body that helps to absorb food and clean the blood
subjective
(adj.) the use of personal feelings and opinions, rather than facts
accumulate
(v.) to gather or acquire something so that you have more of it
rejection
(n.) the act of refusing to consider or believe something
maximize
(v.) to increase, or become as large or great as possible
replacement
(n.) the act of putting something new in the place of something that is old, broken or missing
amongst
(prep.) in or through a group
complication
(n.) something that makes things harder to understand
valve
(n.) a device along a pipe that can either open and allow something to flow, or close and block it
plural
(adj.) refers to more than one person or thing
absorption
(n.) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid
monetary
(adj.) concerning money, often referring to a country's economic system
thermal
(adj.) with reference to some source of heat
likewise
(adj.) in the same way, in addition to
tolerance
(n.) a willingness to let people do, say or believe what they wish, without judging or challenging them
articulate
(v.) to express yourself easily using language
donor
(n.) a person or group that gives gifts or money to help support an organization or cause
flux
(n.) a state of flow and change
mobility
(n.) the ability to move
manipulation
(n.) the act of controlling something or someone
elevate
(v.) to make something higher
nationalism
(n.) one's love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
analogy
(n.) comparing two similar things
adverse
(adj.) negative or harmful
plausible
(adj.) being reasonable and possibly true
nitrogen
(n.) a colorless chemical element without a smell that forms most of the earth's atmosphere
vein
(n.) one of the little tubes that return blood from the body to the heart
controversy
(n.) strong public disagreement about something
wheat
(n.) a kind of grain that is used to make flour for bread
rewrite
(v.) to write something again, usually to improve it or correct errors
manual
(adj.) needing the use of physical strength or work; (n.) a book of information or instructions
strategic
(adj.) concerned with strategy
peasant
(n.) a person of low social status, usually who works on a farm
absorb
(v.) to take in water
sketch
(n.) a drawing made quickly that lacks detail
justification
(n.) a reason or fact that explains why something happens or exists
lifetime
(n.) the time between birth and death
binary
(adj.) having two parts
definite
(adj.) not likely to change, clearly decided
contour
(n.) the shape of the outside edge of something
execution
(n.) the act of killing a person as punishment for something
rhythm
(n.) a pattern of sound and beats in music
ultimate
(adj.) happening or coming at the end of process, final
dictionary
(n.) a book with the meanings of many words
constitution
(n.) a law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
acceleration
(n.) an increase in rate of change
undermine
(v.) to weaken or destroy something secretly and usually slowly
disadvantage
(n.) something that makes things difficult
myth
(n.) a popular belief that is false or unsupported by fact
strand
(n.) something that is plaited or twisted as a rope-like length
unify
(v.) to join or bring together
randomly
(adv.) with no pattern or clear purpose; by chance
philosopher
(n.) a person who studies ideas about things such as the meaning of life and truth
pronounce
(v.) to make the sound of a word or letter with your voice
workshop
(n.) a brief intensive course for a small group; emphasizes problem solving
objection
(n.) a reason for not supporting or being in agreement with an idea, action, or plan
meaningful
(adj.) having importance
wavelength
(n.) the size of a wave; a shared understanding
diagnose
(v.) to determine the cause of something by examination, usually an illness
accent
(n.) a way of saying words that shows your dialect or class
realm
(n.) the area ruled by a king or queen
replication
(n.) the act of making copies
basin
(n.) a water container that is wider than it is deep
admission
(n.) the act of taking responsibility for an error or mistake
interestingly
(adv.) causing someone to feel excitement or interest
clarify
(v.) to make something easier to understand
grid
(n.) a metal structure with bars that is used to cover a hole
curriculum
(n.) a group of related courses, often in a special field of study:
displacement
(n.) the act of taking the place of something or someone else
coherent
(adj.) something logical and well-organized
standardize
(v.) to change something in order to make everything the same or make everything agree
civilization
(n.) an organized society where technology and culture are highly developed
positively
(adv.) definitely or certainly
bacterial
(adj.) concerning or caused by bacteria
deficiency
(n.) without something that is necessary
legitimate
(adj.) being reasonable and sound
sophisticate
(v.) to make more complex or refined
accelerate
(v.) to increase the speed or rate of something
exponential
(adj.) a constant e raised to a power equal to a given expression: e.g. e3x is the exponential of 3x.
formally
(adv.) in a formal manner
socially
(adv.) being with other people
accurately
(adv.) correctly; exactly and without any mistakes
influential
(adj.) having the power to cause change; having influence
progression
(n.) the act of developing or getting closer to a goal
essence
(n.) the most important part or quality of something
cylinder
(n.) a shape or object with flat, circular ends and long, straight sides
scholarship
(n.) money given to a student to pay for education
sodium
(n.) a soft, white chemical element
predominantly
(adv.) in a way that is larger, greater or has more power than others
oscillation
(n.) movement, from side to side at a steady speed; a frequent change in size, strength, or direction between two limits
impulse
(n.) a sudden desire to do something that is not planned
theorist
(n.) a person who forms new ideas
manipulate
(v.) to control something or someone
alliance
(n.) being joined or associated
crystal
(n.) a solid formed by the solidification of a chemical
importantly
(adv.) in an important way
stack
(v.) To put one thing on top of another e.g. books
drift
(v.) to move slowly
nest
(n.) the home of a bird or spider
fossil
(n.) a plant or animal that has become rock after many thousands of years
resistant
(adj.) not affected by something
dimensional
(adj.) having parts that extent in a number of directions
punishment
(n.) the act of punishing someone
rhetoric
(n.) the study of public speaking or writing techniques
artifact
(n.) an object, such as a tool or weapon that was made by humans in the past
carrier
(n.) a company, usually an airline, that carrys things
surgical
(adj.) concerning surgery
coordination
(n.) organizing people or things to make them work together effectively
turbulent
(adj.) moving violently and unevenly
quantum
(n.) the smallest unit or amount of energy
sediment
(n.) the material that settles to the bottom of a liquid
ray
(n.) the lines of light coming from an object
conserve
(v.) to keep safe
primer
(n.) a book that covers the basics of a subject; a kind of paint
grasp
(v.) to grip something firmly with the hands
bulk
(n.) a big size
terminology
(n.) specific words and expressions used in a particular field
vegetation
(n.) plants
triangle
(n.) a closed shape with three straight sides
traditionally
(adv.) something done in a customary or traditional manner
execute
(v.) to kill someone as a punishment; to finish something
intensive
(adj.) needs great effort for a short period of time
reconstruct
(v.) to rebuild something after it has been destroyed
broadly
(adv.) in a manner that includes general points, but not small details
metabolism
(n.) the chemical processes of the body in which food is converted to energy
revolutionary
(adj.) a significant change in something
merge
(v.) to cause two or more things to become combined into one
dilemma
(n.) a position in which a person must make difficult choices
motif
(n.) a distinctive form, shape or figure in a design
motive
(n.) a reason for doing something
subtle
(adj.) difficult to notice, understand, or see
clinic
(n.) a small hospital
allocate
(v.) to distribute according to a plan
hydrogen
(n.) the lightest of all chemical elements, has no smell or color
dissertation
(n.) an in-depth paper submitted for a doctorate degree
susceptible
(adj.) at risk of developing a certain illness or problem
architect
(n.) a person who designs buildings
coronary
(adj.) concerning the heart
breakdown
(n.) when normal activity or behaviour stops
inject
(v.) to put medicine into someone with a syringe
economist
(n.) a person who studies economics
momentum
(n.) the force that gives something the ability to keep going
polar
(adj.) concerning the areas near the North or South poles
backward
(adv.) toward what is behind you
multiply
(v.) to increase greatly in number
morality
(n.) a set of ideas about the right and wrong ways of behaving
communicative
(adj.) likes to talk; open and expressive
physically
(adv.) in a manner related to the body
rainfall
(n.) water falling from the sky
politically
(adv.) in connection with government matters
invasion
(n.) an entry into a place for the purpose of taking control
inevitably
(adv.) happening with complete certainty
capitalism
(n.) an economic system based on private ownership of money and wealth
expertise
(n.) the special knowledge that an expert has on a subject
inferior
(adj.) not as good as something else
actively
(adv.) engaged in an activity in order to achieve a specific goal
quotation
(n.) words that a person has said or written in a play, book or movie
composite
(adj.) made of more than one different part
historically
(adv.) throughout history
textbook
(n.) a book that is used to study
bundle
(n.) a group of things that are tied together
elementary
(adj.) basic, simple, or essential
capitalist
(n.) a person who believes in an economic system based on private ownership of money and wealth
flexibility
(n.) the quality of being able to be bent or stretched
cord
(n.) a long, strong material, thicker than string but not as thick as rope; an electrical wire
realistic
(adj.) looks real
initiation
(n.) a formal entry into an organization, position or office
horizon
(n.) the line where the earth or sea meets the sky
consultation
(n.) a discussion between people to make a decision
ruler
(n.) someone who has control over a country or area
freely
(adv.) able to live, or exist, without being controlled
rotate
(v.) to move or turn around a central point
commodity
(n.) something valuable, usually for sale
elevation
(n.) the height of a place
intervene
(v.) to get involved, to prevent trouble
compensate
(v.) to give something to people who have lost something or done something for you
atomic
(adj.) concerning atoms
trivial
(adj.) unimportant
stance
(n.) a position or opinion that is stated to the public
stabilize
(v.) to make something stable or consistent, with no major changes
profound
(adj.) showing a lot of deep knowledge or thought
whereby
(adv.) by which; by that thing
ancestor
(n.) a person from your family that lived in the past
genetics
(n.) the scientific study of genes, how a living things develop between generations
proton
(n.) a very small part of an atom that has a positive electrical charge
phosphate
(n.) a salt or compound used to help grown plants
gravity
(n.) the force that makes things fall down towards the ground
pole
(n.) a long, narrow piece of metal or wood, that is used to hold or support something
puzzle
(n.) a problem that requires thought and skill to be solved
respiratory
(adj.) to do with breathing
elimination
(n.) the act or process of removing or being removed
exit
(n.) a door that you go through to leave a place
corruption
(n.) actions that are illegal or morally questionable, often performed by a person in a position of power
circulate
(v.) to go round continuously
obscure
(adj.) not famous, unknown by most people; not easy to understand
contradict
(v.) to disagree, to say the opposite is true
interfere
(v.) to get involved in the business of others without invitation
trauma
(n.) a very severe or upsetting experience
upward
(adv.) moving toward a higher point or position
gross
(adj.) total amount; extreme or unreasonable
optical
(adj.) concerning vision or helping people see
communist
(n.) a political system in which individual people do not own property or industries and people of all social classes are equal
continent
(n.) one of the very large areas of land on Earth that are usually divided into several countries
physics
(n.) the study of heat, light, and other forms of energy and how they affect objects
viable
(adj.) able to be done; possible
limb
(n.) leg, arm or wing
retrieve
(v.) to find and get something from somewhere
presume
(v.) to think that something is probably true
rationality
(n.) being able to think clearly
stereotype
(n.) an idea or belief about what someone or something is like, often unfair or untrue
slavery
(n,) the state of being a slave
artistic
(adj.) having the sense or skill to create things well
faculty
(n.) the teachers in a school or college
anthropology
(n.) the study of human origins and the development of society
antibiotic
(adj.) concerning medicine that is used to fight certain diseases
portray
(v.) to represent something or someone in a particular way, often for artistic purposes
sexuality
(n.) characterized and distinguished by sex
chemistry
(n.) the study of the structure of substances and the way that they react with other substances
axiom
(n.) a statement that is accepted as true
pest
(n.) an unwanted insect or small animal that eats plants or food supplies
fracture
(n.) the result of breaking a hard material; a crack
transplant
(n.) a medical operation in which a new organ is placed inside a patient's body
goods
(n.) personal possessions; things you can buy
shortly
(adv.) quickly; soon
epidemic
(adj.) a disease affecting many people
inversion
(n.) a change in position of things so they become the opposite
irrelevant
(adj.) not important, not related to the topic
mechanic
(n.) a person who looks after machinery
epidemiology
(n.) the science of how diseases spread
dissolve
(v.) to melt into a liquid so that a substance mixes with the liquid itself
fatigue
(n.) being very tired
nonetheless
(adv.) in spite of that, nevertheless
bargain
(n.) something bought for a good price
infectious
(adj.) capable of causing infection, by the spreading of a bacteria or virus to others
individually
(adv.) in an individual manner; separately
psychologist
(n.) an expert who studies the mind and behavior
trans
a prefix meaning 'across', 'through' or 'changing thoroughly'
irrigation
(n.) supplying lands with water using pipes or other artificial methods
diary
(n.) a book in which one writes what one has thought or done each day
treaty
(n.) an agreement between nations
rehabilitation
(n.) a scheme to help someone who has been ill or in prison to return to a healthy, independent, and useful life
illusion
(n.) an image that seems real, but is not real
bat
(n.) a small animal that flies at night and looks like a mouse with large wings; an object used for hitting a ball
optimum
(adj.) the best or most desirable
fever
(n.) a high body temperature
paradox
(n.) a saying that seems contrary to popular belief, but which may be true
kidney
(n.) an organ in the body that cleans the blood
predator
(n.) an animal that feeds itself by killing and eating other animals
migrate
(v.) to move from place to another to live or work
infinity
(n.) with out end; limitless
shallow
(adj.) not deep; a small distance between the lowest and highest point
fundamentally
(adv.) in a basic and important way
synthetic
(adj.) not natural; made from artificial materials
solar
(adj.) concerning the sun, or its heat
hepatitis
(n.) a disease of the liver that causes inflammation, yellow skin and a fever
ton
(n.) a unit of weight equal to 907 kilograms
bubble
(n.) a small ball of air inside of a liquid, such as a soap bubble
bracket
(n.) a 90 degree piece of metal used to support a wall shelf
elasticity
(n.) the ability to stretch easily and then quickly return to the original shape
cure
(n.) a medicine or treatment that makes an ill person become healthy
contradictory
(adj.) containing information, statements, or beliefs that do not agree with one another
sensation
(n.) a feeling that is experienced by the body, usually through the sense of touch
sustainable
(adj.) capable of continuing for a long time at the same level; does not damage the environment
elastic
(adj.) able to return to original shape or size after stretching
machinery
(n.) machines in general
dictate
(v.) to speak while another person (or computer) writes the words down
vitamin
(n.) a substance that is healthy for your body and can be found in foods or taken as a medicine
incline
(n.) a slope or surface that rises uphill
leisure
(n.) time when you have no work to do and can do as you want
enforcement
(n.) the act or process of making sure that rules are followed
prey
(n.) an animal that is killed and eaten by another animal
cyclic
(adj.) a series of regular and repeated actions
clue
(n.) a piece of information that helps explain a situation or provide a solution to a problem
friction
(n.) the act of sliding two objects against each other
parenthesis
(n.) one of two symbols ( and ), used in writing for separating a word, phrase, or number from a sentence
noble
(adj.) having personal qualities that people admire
potassium
(n.) a common, soft, silvery white metal that is usually used for farming or industrial purposes
reactive
(adj.) ready or easy to react
genetically
(adv.) caused or controlled, or by genes
bacteria
(n.) the very small creatures that sometimes cause disease in humans and animals
wisdom
(n.) knowledge gained from experience in life
crude
(adj.) basic or made without skill, such as a crude drawing
realism
(n.) dealing with difficulties as they are, rather than as you want
deliberately
(adv.) in a careful, considered manner
chemotherapy
(n.) the treatment of diseases, such as cancer, using chemicals
surplus
(adj.) extra; more than is needed
capillary
(n.) very small blood vessels
directive
(n.) showing the way by conducting or leading
globalization
(n.) the process by which businesses, cultures, and information extend into many different regions throughout the world
alien
(n.) a person or creature from a planet other than Earth
portfolio
(n.) a list of the financial assets held by an individual or other financial institution
monopoly
(adv.) complete control of the market for a service or product
lifestyle
(n.) the type of life that you have
invert
(v.) to turn something upside down
thread
(n.) a long, very thin, soft material used to join or make cloth
clay
(n.) heavy, sticky earth used to make pottery
dye
(n.) a liquid that colors hair or cloth
transcribe
(v.) to write something spoken
dilute
(v.) to mix; to reduce in strength, concentration, quality or purity
tribe
(n.) a racial group united by language, religion and customs
damp
(adj.) a little wet
economically
(adv.) in an efficient manner
critically
(adv.) in a very serious manner
secrete
(v.) to produce a liquid
hip
(n.) the upper part of the leg
plantation
(n.) a large farm, usually in a hot climate
prejudice
(n.) an unreasonable hatred for a group of people, usually a race or a religion
onwards
(adv.) forward
anti
a prefix meaning 'against' or 'opposed'
helix
(n.) a 3D spiral shape
interrupt
(v.) to cause something to stop happening for a time
domination
(n.) authority; rule; control
undergraduate
(n.) a college student who is working toward his or her first degree
soluble
(adj.) can be mixed with a liquid, e.g. salt is soluble in water
innate
(adj.) present in a person or animal from the time of birth
dioxide
(n.) an oxide containing two oxides per molecule
goat
(n.) a small animal related to sheep
emit
(v.) to release or send something
confound
(v.) to confuse and greatly surprise someone, so that they are unable to explain a situation
competent
(adj.) sufficiently qualified or capable of doing job
degrade
(v.) to treat someone without respect; to reduce in amount or strength
layout
(n.) a plan or design of something
fabric
(n.) cloth
container
(n.) an object that can be used to hold things; a big metal box
fungus
(n.) a group of plants that grow on dead materials and have no flowers, e.g. mushrooms
reservoir
(n.) a lake, usually artificial, where water is collected and stored for the use of a community or industry
footnote
(n.) extra information at the bottom of a page
bodily
(adv.) Moving someone with physical force
niche
(n.) a small area; a specialised business, job or activity
vague
(adj.) not clearly stated
affirm
(v.) to strengthen or support a belief that is already held
urine
(n.) yellow liquid waste from the body
afterward
(adv.) happening after something else happened
jazz
(n.) a type of American music known for its energetic beat and parts that musicians make up as they go along
antiquity
(n.) an ancient period; something made a long time ago
unemployed
(adj.) without a job
toxic
(adj.) poisonous; harmful
yeast
(n.) a single-celled fungi used to make bread and beer
punish
(v.) to make someone suffer for bad behavior
forum
(n.) a meeting where people can openly discuss a subject
bleed
(v.) to lose blood because of an injury
overhead
(adj.) above a person's head
republic
(n.) a country governed by elected representatives
processor
(n.) a machine or company that prepares something and makes it ready for use
goodness
(n.) pleasing, valuable or useful
comply
(v.) to act in agreement with another's wishes; to obey a rule
audit
(v.) to examine carefully for accuracy
legend
(n.) a story which is told and generally believed but can not be proven
slot
(n.) a long narrow opening, into which you put or fit something
drain
(n.) a pipe that removes water, or other liquids
abdominal
(adj.) concerned with the abdomen or stomach
media
(n.) a means of communication, such as television, newspapers, and the internet
tempt
(v.) to make someone want something, even if it's bad
outlet
(n.) a way for something to be released; a pipe, hole or wire through which gas, liquid or electricity flows
precipitation
(n.) rain, snow or hail
founds
(v.) to be based on, started or created by
invade
(v.) to enter a place with an aim of taking control of it
interviewer
(n.) a person who asks questions, of one or more people, to obtain information
apple
(n.) a hard round red or green fruit with a white center
planner
(n.) a person, computer program or notebook used in planning
supposedly
(adv.) based on what many people have said or believe to be true
gut
(n.) the parts inside: a human body, animal body or a machine
swell
(v.) to become larger than normal, often because of injury
emperor
(n.) the man who rules an empire
altitude
(n.) the height of something above sea level
gauge
(n.) a tool used to measure things
transparency
(n.) the amount you can see through something
sub
a prefix meaning 'under' or 'instead of'
blank
(adj.) something empty, not filled
chloride
(n.) a chemical compound that is a mixture of chlorine and something else
sensible
(adj.) having the ability to judge something reasonably
weave
(v.) to make something by crossing threads over and under each other
destination
(n.) the place one is traveling to
precipitate
(v.) to cause to happen
painful
(adj.) causing or feeling physical pain or hurt
industrialization
(n.) the process of creating and developing many businesses and factories in an area
lab
(n.) laboratory; a place to do scientific experiments
seminar
(n.) a small class at a college or university
minus
(prep) being less than zero in number
conduction
(n.) the transmission of heat, electricity or sound
audio
(adj.) concerning sound
subtract
(v.) to take away, e.g. 20 - 5 = 15
facet
(n.) a part of something
splice
(n.) The act of connecting two pieces of rope or wire into one
incumbent
(n.) a person who holds a particular office or position
biodiversity
(n.) the variation in an environment, the number of different types of life found there
chunk
(n.) a large part of something
credibility
(n.) believable or deserving trust
tutor
(n.) a teacher
super
(adj.) of the highest quality
fin
(n.) the flat, thin body parts of a fish that sticks out and helps guide it through water
aluminum
(n.) a very light silvery-white metal used to make cans and pans
gram
(n.) a metric unit of weight
liable
(adj.) legally responsible for something
marble
(n.) a kind of stone; metamorphosed limestone
pesticide
(n.) a chemical substance used to kill pests
technically
(adv.) in an exact and particular manner
criteria
(n.) standards that are used to make a decision
fringe
(n.) the edge of something; such as the decorative edge on a piece of clothing
messenger
(n.) someone who delivers a messages
biologist
(n.) a scientist who studies living things
connotation
(n.) an association; an implication
delta
(n.) the place a river divides before entering a larger body of water
tremendous
(adj.) having great size, excellence, or power
snake
(n.) an animal with with a long thin body and no arms or legs
flesh
(n.) the soft parts of the body
ghost
(n.) the soul or spirit of a dead person
marrow
(n.) a soft, fatty tissue inside bones
surgeon
(n.) a doctor who performs surgery
instinct
(n.) the natural way a person or animal thinks or behaves, knowledge that is not learned
industrialize
(v.) to develop a lot of industry
denominator
(n.) the bottom number in a fraction
stripe
(n.) a long, thin part of something which is a different color from the parts beside it
junior
(adj.) someone lower in rank
solvent
(n.) something that dissolves or can melt another substance
kilometer
(n.) a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters
slab
(n.) a thick, flat slice of something
click
(v.) to press a computer mouse
hedge
(n.) a fence made with small trees; avoid or try to avoid fulfilling
spray
(v.) to make water or liquid fly in very small drops
cinema
(n.) a place for showing movies
plug
(n.) an electrical connector; (v.) to fill or close tightly so liquid or air cannot pass
naked
(adj.) not wearing any clothes
indifference
(n.) a lack of enthusiasm or interest in things; seeming not to care
erase
(v.) to remove written information or information on a computer memory
powder
(n.) a dry substance made up of very small pieces
micro
a prefix meaning 'very small', such as microchip
clip
(n.) a metal holder used for keeping things together
solute
(n.) a substance that has dissolved in a solvent and become part of the liquid, so that they form a solution
dissection
(n.) the act or process of cutting something
censor
(v.) to remove parts of a book, film or letter for moral, religious, or political reasons
portrayal
(n.) the way that something or someone is represented in a book, film, picture or other context
statistics
(n.) a type of mathematics that provide specific information or prove something
thumb
(n.) the short, thick finger on the side of your hand
acidic
(adj.) containing acid
uplift
(v.) to make someone feel happier or more hopeful
flip
(v.) to rotate or turn something over
congruent
(adj.) having the same shape and size
parcel
(n.) a package or box wrapped in paper, a thing bigger than a letter that is sent in the mail
lecturer
(n.) a teacher in university; a person who gives lectures
skip
(v.) to not do; to jump
poster
(n.) a large, printed notice or picture
sword
(n.) a long metal weapon with a sharp point and edge
photographic
(adj.) concerning the art of making images with cameras
auction
(v.) to sell things at a public sale to the person who offers the highest price
barrel
(n.) a round container with curved sides and flat ends
mentor
(n.) an experienced or wise person who teaches or helps another person
nicely
(adv.) in a nice way
lump
(n.) a small hard part of something smooth, soft, or continuous
quiz
(n.) a game in which players answer questions on a specific topic
watershed
(n.) a period of time during which important, significant changes take place
liter
(n.) an amount of a liquid equivalent to one kilogram of water
oxidize
(v.) to make something combine with oxygen; to rust
mercury
(v.) a heavy, silver-white metal that is used in thermometers to measure temperature; a planet
noisy
(adj.) loud sounds that cause discomfort or annoyance
headquarters
(n.) the main office of a company or organisation
phenomenal
(adj.) unusual, remarkable
multinational
(adj.) involving many countries
comma
(n.) a mark that shows you when to take a break in the middle of a sentence
bizarre
(adj.) odd or strange
specialty
(n.) the specific area of one's field
socialize
(v.) to teach people to behave in a way which is acceptable in their culture; to spend time with people
novice
(n.) a person with little or no experience in a particular activity, skill, or subject
enormously
(adv.) extremely, by a large amount
rope
(n.) a thick string made by twisting many fibers together
campus
(n.) the site of an institution, such as a university campus
clever
(adj.) intelligent and able to learn things quickly; smart
mole
(n.) a small animal with dark fur that lives under the ground; a unit for measuring molecules
sometime
(adv.) at an unknown time in the future
bucket
(n.) an open container with a handle used to hold liquids
swap
(v.) to trade or exchange
recipe
(n.) directions for making something
airplane
(n.) a machine that flies through the air
deflection
(n.) the action of making something move in a different direction
deceive
(v.) to make someone believe something that is not true
syllabus
(n.) the teaching schedule for a course in a school or university
neat
(adj.) not messy; clean and orderly
factorial
(adj.) concerning factors or factorials
lever
(n.) a handle that one pulls to operate a machine
descriptor
(n.) a label; something that describes
semester
(n.) half a year in school or college
underneath
(adv.) below or beneath something; under
reactor
(n.) a device used to control the release of nuclear energy as a power source
herbicide
(n.) a poison that kills weeds
bonus
(n.) a reward
cheat
(v.) to break a rule to gain an advantage
missile
(n.) a weapon, usually thrown, shot or launched
rub
(v.) to move something back and forth along a surface
radar
(n.) a device that sends out radio waves for finding out the position of another object
memorize
(v.) to study something well enough that it can be retrieved from memory
scripture
(n.) the holy books of a particular religion
whoever
(pron.) whatever person; any person at all
whichever
(det.) whatever one
bullet
(n.) an object, usually metal, that is put in a gun and shot
punch
(v.) to make a quick hit with a closed hand
postgraduate
(n.) study done after taking a first degree
artwork
(n.) photographs or pictures in a printed publication
pardon
(v.) to excuse
millimeter
(n.) 1/1000th of a meter
incredible
(adj.) very hard to believe
halfway
(adv.) a middle point between two extremes
deadline
(n.) a date or time before which something must be done
bang
(v.) to strike something loudly or forcefully
semi
a prefix meaning 'half'
slash
(v.) to cut violently
ridiculous
(adj.) something that deserves laughter, is foolish or funny
multi
a prefix meaning 'more than one'
homework
(n.) work that a student is given to do at home
volition
(n.) the act of making a conscious choice
tricky
(adj.) difficult to do or deal with; something that needs skill
cheer
(v.) to shout praise or encouragement
shuttle
(n.) a vehicle that carries passengers or items between two places
aerosol
(n.) a container that has liquid under pressure and releases the liquid in a spray
athletic
(adj.) strong and physically capable
chess
(n.) a game of strategy, for two players
terribly
(adv.) in an extreme manner; badly
unintelligible
(adj.) cannot be understood
circa
(n.) an approximate time period
scroll
(n.) a long rolled piece of paper with writing on it; (v.) to move up and down a computer screen
sponsorship
(n.) money given to a student to pay for education
connector
(n.) a device that joins things together
nasty
(adj.) very bad, unpleasant, offensive
incredibly
(adv.) extremely, hard to believe
neo
a prefix meaning 'recent' or 'new'
entrant
(n.) a person who enters a contest
hawk
(n.) a large bird that gets its food by killing smaller birds and animals
handout
(n.) a piece of paper with information, often given out before a presentation
tech
(n.) short for technology or technician
rack
(n.) a frame, stand or hook on which things are set or hung
applause
(n.) the sound made by clapping and cheering a performance or speech
demonstrator
(n.) someone who shows something (e.g. a product) and explains how it works
calculator
(n.) a small electronic device used for calculation
mall
(n.) a large shopping center with many individual stores
sneeze
(v.) to loudly blow air out of your nose or mouth in a sudden uncontrolled way
sniff
(v.) to smell by short intakes of air.
stadium
(n.) a sports arena
descendent
(adj.) going down

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