UARK Film Lecture Final - Sharman
Terms in this set (80)
An analytical approach concerned with the mean by which a subject is expressed
The tools and techniques that filmmakers use to convey meaning and mood to the viewer; including lighting mies-en-scene, cinematography, performance, editing, and sound
The baggage that we bring to movies
The subject of an artwork
The means by which the subject is expressed and experienced
How do we differentiate film from other art forms?
Relationship between movies and culture
We bring out culture to every movie. When we bring our culture to a movie we are connecting with it
Requires a deep level association, connection, or thinking about what we have seen/heard
The stuff that we see at the surface of the movie, does not require much thinking
Can be known as staging.
The overall look and feel of a movie-the sum of everything the audience sees, hears, and experiences while viewing it
Two main components of mine-en-scene
Lighting, soundstage, costume
-The organization, distribution, balance, and general relationship of actors and objects within the space of each shot.
- General relationship of stationary objects and figures, as well as light, shade, line, and color within the frame
The process by which the cinematographer determines what will appear both within the borders of the moving image during a shot
The aspect of composition that takes into account everything that moves on screen
Role of the production designer
Develops the overall look and feel of the movie
What or who is the primary narrator?
Voice over narration, Direct address narration, Third person, Restricted Narration
What are the various types of narration?
Voice Over Narration
When we hear a characters voice over the picture without seeing the character
Direct Address Narration
When the first person narrator interrupts the narrative to address the audience (Ex. Dora)
Voice narrates from outside the film (Ex. the movie Elf)
When the audience only knows as much as the character knows (Ex. 13 reasons why - Although the audience knew there was more going on that was unknown to clay, we didn't know what. We only knew what clay knew)
Theme or narrative intent
A shared public idea, such as a metaphor, myth, or personality type. (The main point or points that the viewer draws from the way the characters respond to the obstacles or resolve the conflict in the film.)
All the narrative events that are explicitly presented on screen, and all the events we infer to have happened
(what we think happened)
Consist of the specific action and events that the filmmaker select an the order in which they occur
(what we see happen)
Act 1: start of story
Act 2: (longest act) - body -leads to the climax
Act3: Resolves act 2
What constitutes the typical hollywood narrative structure?
These Types of characters change throughout the movie, more story to them
These types of characters don't change much throughout the movie, are just present in the movie
A narratively significant objective pursued by the protagonist.
(In a conventional narrative) The protagonist's pursuit of the goal results in risk and consequence.
The opposition main characters must face to achieve their goals.
Responsible for transforming the other aspects of a movie into moving images.
-Takes the directors vision and makes it a reality
-Shot: One uninterrupted run of the camera
-Take: The number of times a particular shot is taken
-Setup: One camera position and everything associated with it
What are the key shooting terms?
-Type: Black and white or color
-Format: 8mm, 16mm. 35mm, 65mm
-Speed: Fast or slow
Most important properties of lighting?
-Natural: Sunlight using reflector boards to direct light
-Artificial: Instruments uses spotlights and floodlight
-Hard Lighting: Uses low key light
What are some traditional lighting techniques?
---black and white-- offers a gritty realism
- It offers compositional possibilities and cinematografiche effects that are impossible with color; offers moral and ethical implications
--color-- offers more naturalism
-The movie camera exaggerates colors
-Film stock is chosen to match the color temperature (measured in kelvin) of the light source
-Camera filters may be used in front of the lens to cut out specific part of the color spectrum
How do cinematographers approach the use of black and white versus color cinematography?
-Types: black and white or color
-Gauges (also called formats) -8mm, super 8mm, 16mm, 35mm, 65mm, 70mm, IMAX
-Speed (exposure) the degree to which it is light sensitive: fast/slow
-Format: NTSC or PAL
-Resolution- HD 1080 (1920x1080) pixels the P stands for progressive scan) 4K (4096x2160) pixels
-Sensor size: 2/3rds, APS-C full frame, super 35
What are some key differences between film versus digital cinematography?
In Camera Effects
A special effect that is created in the production camera (the regular camera used for shooting the rest of the film) on the original negative
Objects or events created mechanically on the set and in front of the camera
A special effect that is created in the laboratory through processing and printing (Created on film stock)
(Must be smooth)
Different type of camera movements?
Horizontal movement of a camera mounted on a stationary tripod
The vertical movement of a camera mounted on a stationary tripod
Taken by a camera fixed on a wheeled support
Subject grows larger
Subject grows smaller
The relationship between the frame's two dimensions: the width of the image related to its height
Depth of Field
The distance in front of a camera and its lens in which objects are in apparent sharp focus
What are the responsibilities of an editor on a film production?
Decides what shots should be used and how to use the
Spatial relationships between shots
Temporal relationships between shots
Overall rhythm of the film
-Temporal relationships: When the relations between shots function to control time.
-Spatial Relationships: When the relations between shots function to construct film space.
-Overall Rhythm of the film: Determining duration of a shot
Technique - the actual method of editing (joining 2 shots)
Craft - skill of editing. (joining shots together to produce a meaning that wasn't present in either individual shots)
Art - refers to essence of evident (joining of two shots is able to elect some emotion)
Editing as a technique, craft, and art
-Parallel Editing: Two or more actions happening at the same time in different places
-Crosscutting: Cutting together two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously at different locations
What are some basic cuts and transitions that editors use?
Continuity editing and how it is achieved
A style of editing that seeks to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and temporal and spatial orientation of viewers.
-Ensures flow from shot to shot
What is the master scene technique and how does it relate to the 180 degree rule?
This technique is based on the principle of coverage, which mean it is photographed with a variety of individual shots, running from genreral to specific
-All the shots that comprise the cinematography of that scene
-This is related to the 180 degree rule because both are focused on making sure the viewer is oriented towards that action and understands what is going on
Freeze Frame:A n editing technique whereby the same frame is seen (without any movement) for however long the filmmaker wishes to hold the frame there.
Split Screen: An editing technique whereby two stories are told at the same time
What are some foundational editing techniques?
Seeing images onscreen and thinking they are moving when it is actually just a result of frames being switched -> gives the illusion of movement
Persistence of Vision
Our brains being able to retain an image for a bit longer than it takes our eyes record it -> gives the illusion of succession
What is the role of sound design in a film?
A state of the art concept pioneered by director Francis ford Coppola and film editor Walter Murch, combining the crafts of editing and mixing and involving both theoretical and practical issues
Makes people think about the movies sounds not just the movies pictures
-Double system recording
What are the different types of sound?
Sounds are recorded in a study by a folley actor. The noise are recorded outside the film and later edited into the film
Double System Recording
The standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture. Allows for maximum quality control of the medium and the many aspects of manipulating sound during postproduction editing, mixing, and synchronization
How does mixing effect the experience of a film?
The process of combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track synched with the picture.
-Makes an audio miss-en-scene that allows the viewer to distinguish between background noise and significant noise within the film
Comes from within the movie and is heard by both the audience and the characters
Comes from outside the film and is heard only by the audience
-Personality actor: Take their persona from role to role (Tom Cruise)
-Chameleon actor: Different in every role (Johnny Depp)
What are the different types of movie actors?
-Little practice time
-Movie are shot out of order and fragmented
-Character you are acting with may not be there
-Actors must repeat the same action/line/emotion every time
-Framing and compostion: Brings actors together or keeps them apart
What are some of the specific challenges of acting on film?
-Classical acting: Rooted in shakespearean performance, action oriented, rather than emotional, based on script analysis
-Method Acting: Rooted in work of Moscow theater director, Konstantin Stanislavsky, Seeks the truth of a character, emotionally oriented, based on actors experiences
-Mesiner Technique: Rooted in the work of Sanford Mesiner, Action oriented and external, based on reacting to other actors
What are some of the different schools of acting?
Editors have the power to shape an actors performance
selects, arranges, and juxtaposes shots to cover errors
Controls how much screen time an actor sees
How does editing effect an actors performance?
----ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO ANALYSIS----
What is cultural invisibility and how does it effect filmmakers and audiences?
How are films both works of art and cultural documents?
How were women and African Americans represented in the early period of American cinema?
How has the representation of women and African Americans changed over the past 100 years?