Styles Chapter 11 Questions
Terms in this set (22)
In what significant ways does the music of the Classic Period differ from Baroque music?
The Baroque period was a time of opulence, splendor, ornamentation, decoration, and emotional expressions, where as the Classic period reflected the emotional restraint, balance, clarity, symmetry, clear and precise formal structure, and simplicity of the Age of Reason.
What are the primary music genres and forms of the Classic period?
The primary instrumental genres of the Classic period are multimovement works, usually with three or four movements: the SONATA for one or two instruments, the SYMPHONY and CONCERTO for orchestra, and CHAMBER MUSIC (for a string quartet or other small chamber music group).
How does the symphony orchestra of the Classic period compare with the Baroque orchestra?
The Classic period was more standard and structured compared to the Baroque period. The Classic period orchestra consisted of strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion. All music was written out separately, so the continuo and figured bass of the Baroque period was no longer need.
How does the chamber music of the Classic period compare with that of the Baroque?
Baroque chamber music was more freeing and expressive and was built on a continuo and figured bass.
Classical chamber music was more structured and had less room to be emotionally expressive and NO LONGER included a continuo and figured bass.
What is the significance today of the major composers of the late eighteenth century?
Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven created a new style, resulting in a tremendous wealth of literature: symphonies, concertos, and string quartets; piano sonatas; operas and oratorios; and the standardization of the sonata, rondo and other forms. The instrumentation of the symphony orchestra became standard, as it remains today.
Why is the classical period in music often referred to as the beginning of the modern era?
Developments made during the Classic period laid the groundwork for the musical practices of the next 150-200 years. This period also saw and increase in community concert halls and opera houses as music became more available to common people through public performances.
What were the primary centers of musical activity in the classical period? What sorts of values permeated these environments?
Dynamics, Form, Scales, & Tempo
In what ways did classical music reflect the "Age of Reason?" That is, what qualities in the music reflected aesthetic qualities associated with the Age of Reason?
The Classic period reflected the Age of Reason because the music was very balanced and had controlled emotion. It was more structured than free forming like in Baroque music.
From the Willoughby text, briefly summarize the musical characteristics of the classical style concerning the following parameters.
-harmony (tonality, modulations, etc.)
-MELODY: predominated all other parts and factors. Typically lyrical, with smooth, stepwise contours. Phrases ended with obvious tonic-dominant cadences and diatonic melodies prevailed and reflected the under-lying harmonies.
-TEXTURE: homophonic texture was much more important than contrapuntal or polyphonic writing
-RHYTHM: was for the most part uncomplicated and predictable
-FORMAL DESIGN: a b a
section a in the tonic key, section b in a contrasting key, and then return to a.
-HARMONY: music was tonal, in major and minor, for harmonic practices were a logical extension and refinement of the tonal system established during the Baroque period. Chord progression used the most common, most basic harmonies. Modulations to new keys were common.
What happened to the Baroque basso continuo and figured bass system in the classical period? Why?
The basso continuo and figured bass were dropped in the classical period because all instrumental parts were individually written to allow for a more structured ensemble.
Summarize the instrumentation of a typical classical period orchestra.
The orchestra included a string section (1st and 2nd violins, violas, cellos, and double basses), a winds section (flutes, clarinets, oboes, bassoons, trumpets, horns, and sometimes trombones), and timpani (the only widely used percussion instrument).
What were the three most prominent chamber ensembles of the classical period (cite answers and supply instruments involved for each)?
1) String quartet (two violins, one viola, one cello)
2) Piano trio (violin, cello, and piano)
3) piano quintet (string quartet plus piano)
What were the primary instrumental genres of the classic period? All involved more than one movement -- summarize the typical arrangement and structure of these multimovement genres.
3) Chamber Music
Movement I: Fast- sonata form
Movement II: Slow- A broad a b a form is common; sometimes a theme-and-variations form
Movement III: Dance- usually a minuet and trio or, later, a scherzo and trio; this movement was typically omitted in most three-movement sonatas and in concertos
Movement IV: Fast- usually a rondo; sometimes sonata form
In what way(s) is chamber music distinguished from orchestra music?
Chamber Music genre encompasses works for a variety of small ensembles where as orchestra music is written for large ensembles
In what way(s) did opera evolve (develop) during the classical period?
Opera developed by merging music with drama. Classic opera presented ongoing music and continuous drama arranged in scenes.
Summarize the function of the following opera components.
-chorus and solo ensembles
recitative and aria accompaniment: intended to enhance the atmosphere of the text rather than be totally subservient to the singer.
recitative: provided narrative
aria: provided commentary on the plot
chorus and solo ensembles: enhanced the plot and added musical and dramatic interest.
What formal design was commonly used as the basis of the first movement of string quartets, concertos, symphonies, and sonatas?
Exposition, development, and a recapitulation and sometimes and introduction and coda.
Regarding the sonata form:
a. what would you expect to hear during the exposition section?
b. what would you expect to hear during the development section?
c. what would you expect to hear during the recapitulation section?
a. Exposition: primary theme in the tonic key, followed by a secondary theme in a contrasting key (sometimes in a contrasting mood). The second section could end in the new key. Exposition was sometimes repeated.
b. Development: music was based on prior material, such as a melodic fragment of the first theme or perhaps the second theme or even both. The fragments became the basis of experimentation, in which the composer used an idea and let it grow.
c. Recapitulation: provided the return to stability (return to tonic key).
d. coda: was the concluding section, in effect serving as an extension of the tonic ending but building up to and creating anticipation of the final cadence.
Regarding the theme and variations design-- what most clearly distinguishes a sectional theme and variations from a continuous theme and variations?
Sectional- clear breaks between variations
Continuous- without clear stops
What stylized dance form was the only one that carried over from the Baroque and continues to thrive in the classical period?
The following questions pertain to composers Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven...
Regarding Beethoven in particular"
a. In what way(s) is Beethoven considered to have "freed music from the constraints of classicism?"
b. In general, what distinguishes Beethoven's "early" compositional period from his "late" period?
a. by creating works that are models of subjective telling and personal expression. His works influenced not only his contemporaries but also composers of later generations.
b. His early compositions were significantly longer than his later compositions.