Bio 311C Final


Terms in this set (...)

What are the levels and examples of Biological Hierarchy
Molecules(water, sugar)
Macromolecules (lipids, Carbs, Proteins)
Parts of a cell(Cell Membrane, Cell Wall)
Cell(Unicellular organism, Parts of multicellular)
Tissue (muscle, bone, nerve)
Organs (heart, lungs, liver)
Organ System (respiratory, circulatory)
Organism (Plants, Animals, bacteria )
Population (Many individuals of same species)
Community (Many different populations)
Ecosystem (Many different communities)
Biome (Desert, Forest, Tundra)
Biosphere (layer where all life is hosted)
Covalent Bond
when two atoms share a pair of electrons
(glycosidic bonds, ester bonds, etc)
Non-polar covalent bond
when two atoms with the same or similar electronegativity share electrons equally
What are Non-polar covalent bond examples
Methane, O2, H2
Polar covalent bond
When two atoms share electrons unequally
What are polar covalent bond examples
Water, NH3
Ionic bonds
When the electronegativity of one atom is greater than the neighboring atom

(This bond is weaker than covaleant bonds)
What are Ionic bond examples
Na+, Cl-
Hydrogen Bond
When the hydrogen covalently attached to one electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom.

(Stronger than Van der Waals and Hydrophobic interactions)
What are Hydrogen Bond Examples
N, O, F
Van Der Waals Interactions
very weak interaction between molecules due to temporary charges attracting atoms that are very close together
What are Van Der Waals Examples
Lipids in biological membranes, celluose in plant cell walls
Hydrophillic Interactions
Water loving charged molecules that are soluble in water
What are some examples of Hydrophillic Interactions
Outside phospholipids membrane bilayer
Water fearing molecules that are normally non-polar and lipid soluble
What are some examples of Hydrophobic
Inside phospholipids membrane bilayer
What are the features of various functional groups and their importance?
Same atoms but different arrangement.
Compounds with the same formula but different structures.
Functional Group
Chemical Groups attached to Carbon skeleton, affecting the properties of the molecule.

(Like different rings in the Lantern Core. Different rings does different things)
Hydroxyl group (-OH)
Gives polarity to molecules
-Makes it easy for molecules to dissolve in water
-called alcohols
Examples of Hydroxyl Group
Sugars and amino acids
Carbonyl Group (-C=O)
Slightly polar
Alehyde if at the end of a molecule( hyde = behind)
Ketone if in the middle of a molecule (Keys go into the middle of doors)
Examples of Carbonyl Groups
simple sugars, some proteins, and nucleotides
Carboxyl group (-COOH)
An acidic group that can ionize COO- and H+ , increasing the concentration on H+ ions

(it Ionizes certain acids)
Examples of Carboxyl group
All amino acids, Fatty Acids, Citric Acid
Amino Group (-NH2)
Can act as a base accepting protons(Hydrogen ions)
Examples of Amino Groups
Amino Acids
Nitrogenous bases
Sulfhydryl group(-SH)
is a reactive group
it's present in the Amino Acid Cysteine
Can be used to make a disulfide bridge and stabilize a protein structure
Examples of Sulfhydryl group
They are found in some active sites of catalysis
Phosphate Groups (-OPO32-)
Highly Polar
Important in energy compounds such as ATP
Acidic reactive group
Where are Phosphate Groups found?
In DNA RNA and all nucleotides,
also in Phosplipids
Methyl Group (-CH3)
Affect the solubility of a compound in aqueous or organic solutions
Where are methyl groups found?
Fatty acids and alcohols
What are the 4 types of Biological Molecules
Nucleic acid
Condensation Synthesis (Dehydration synthesis)
a bond forming by removing a water molecule

(Monomers=> Dimers=> Trimers =>Oligamer = > Polymer)
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Carbohydrate Monomers
Sugar( Used to store energy)
Lipids Monomers
fatty acids and glycerol
( stores energy, forms membranes, used for steroids)
Protein Monomers
Amino Acids
(Used for enzymes structural material, and peptides)
Nucleic Acids Monomers
What are the three types of Carbohydrates
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
Universal Codon principle
3 different bases --> provide 64 possible combinations made all possible combinations of codons in RNA --> test what amino acids are being made by each.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis and glycosidic linkages.

(Glucose+Glucose = Maltose)
A molecule formed by joining many monosaccharides together. Polysaccharides are typically energy-storage molecules (glycogen in animals, starch in plants) or structural molecules (cellulose in plants, chitin in exoskeletons).
What are the 3 different types of lipids
(Lipids are made of hydrocarbons and are non-polar and Hydrophobic)

Others such as steroids and cholesterol
Fats (Triglycerides)
Made of a glycerol molecule linked to three fatty acids. Used for energy storage and fuels. There are three main types of fats or triglycerides
Saturated(solid at room temp, animal fats)
Unsaturated (liquid at room temp, olive oil)
A class of lipid molecules in which a phosphate group is linked to glycerol and two fatty acetyl groups; a chief component of biological membranes
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Different forms of genes(EX blue eyes, green eyes)
An organism's genetic makeup
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits according to gentype
When a particular phenotype is being shown despite having the recessive gene
transposable elements
tissue specific gene expression
During and after development genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner to facilitate the function of different cell or tissue types.

ex: leaf tissues in a plant will make proteins for photosynthesis and storage tissues will make storage proteins.
coordinated gene expression
a way to coordinate multiple genes by having a similar regulatory sequences recognized by a common transcription factor
Law of Segregation
When the pairs of alleles separate during the formation of gametes
Law of independent assortment
Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate from one another during gamete formation and are independent of one another.
Griffin's Experiment
Griffin used two strains of bacteria type III-s and type II-R. Mice infected with III-S died because the bacteria was resistant to the mouse's immune system. Mice infected with II-R lived and showed few symptoms because the bacteria was destroyed by the immune system. Mice infected with dead III-S and live with II-R died, showing that the III-S had been transformed to type II-R.
Meselson's and Stahl's Experiment
Determined that DNA replicates using a semiconservative method.
What is the structure of DNA Double Helix
single strand binding protein
A type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited.
Multiple Genes
One trait is influenced by multiple genes(skin color is determined by 3 genes)
Incomplete Dominance
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
Sex-linked Inheritance
Inheritance that may result from a mutant gene located on either the X- or Y-chromosome.
Maternal Inheritance
Genes that are inherited only from the mother, such as mitochondrial genes (all organelles come only from the ovum).
Environmental Effect on Gene Expression
Comprised of all nongenetic factors influencing an individual's performance for a trait( like skin color and sunlight)
Situation in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are completely expressed
A single gene having multiple effects on an individuals phenotype
DNA library
Collection of several different DNA fragments cloned in a vector (plasmid or phage) and maintained in a bacterial host.
Cloning vector
autonomously replicating DNA fragment used to clone foreign DNA and transfer DNA
DNA restriction fragments are size fractionated by?
gel electrophoresis
inducible Operon
an example of a positive control of gene expression when lactose is present. Used for catabolic pathways
portion of chromatin that remains condensed. not readily accessible by RNA polymerases and other proteins.
Reverse Transcriptase
RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that makes DNA from RNA
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
make millions of copies of DNA from a single copy

uses a thermostable DNA polymerase
Northern Analysis
used to study expression of mRNA from gene

use DNA-RNA hybrids to detect expression
Southern Analysis
used to verify presence of specific DNA in organism
Central Dogma
DNA makes RNA makes Protein

1. Transcription
2. RNA processing
3. Translation
4. Post-translational modification
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
used a haploid generation of a fungus. Generated mutants that were 'auxotroph' need nutritional supplement studied amino acid Arginine biosynthetic pathway.

Precursor --> Orninthine --> Citulline --> Arginine
messenger RNA contains codons (triplet), varies in length and information encoding various proteins
one mRNA encodes one protein
one mRNA encodes many proteins
transfer RNA, brings in right amino acids based on anticodons
many triplet codons code for the same amino acid
ribosomal RNA with ribosomal proteins form the ribosome, fixed length and is assembled into subunits in nucleolus region in Eukaryotes.
the flexibility of the third base to bond with more than one codon (special case)
Western Analysis
identify presence of particular protein using a labeled antibody
FDA (Food & Drug Administration)
approve genetically altered foods before they can come to the market.
Restriction enzymes & DNA ligase
needed to create a recombinant DNA molecules
Restriction endonuclease
enzyme that can recognize a specific DNA sequence & cut DNA in that site
NIH (National Institutes of Health)
sets guidelines for scientists doing recombinant DNA research
EPA (Environmental Protections Agency)
assess ecological impact of recombinant technology

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