Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Terms in this set (30)
The first permanent English colony in North America was Virginia. It was a business
venture of the Virginia Company, an English firm that planned to make money by
sending people to America to find gold and other valuable natural resources and then
ship the resources back to England. The Virginia Company established a legislative
assembly that was similar to England's Parliament, called the House of Burgesses.
The House of Burgesses was the first European-type legislative body in the New World.
People were sent from England to work for the Virginia Company. They discovered no
gold but learned how to cultivate tobacco. Tobacco quickly became a major cash crop
and an important source of wealth in Virginia. It also helped to create major social and
economic divisions between those who owned land and those who did not. Additionally,
tobacco cultivation was labor-intensive, and the Virginia colony's economy became
highly dependent on slavery.
The first New England colonies were established by the Puritans in present-day
Massachusetts. Most of the colonists came with their whole family to pursue a better
life and to practice religion as they saw fit. As a result of strict religious beliefs, the
Puritans were not tolerant of different religions. Rhode Island was founded by religious
dissenters from Massachusetts who were more tolerant of different religious beliefs.
King Philip's War
was an early and bloody conflict between English
colonists and Native Americans. The name of the conflict refers to the leader of the
Native Americans involved in the fight, Metacom, who many colonists called "King
Philip." As a result of this conflict, many Native Americans fled the area. Colonists then
expanded into areas of southern New England.
located between New England and Virginia, was a colony founded by
the religiously tolerant Quakers led by William Penn. Farther north, New York was
settled by the Dutch, who called it New Amsterdam. In 1664, the British conquered
the colony and renamed it New York. A diverse population kept alive this center of
trade and commerce founded by the Dutch, whom the British invited to remain there.
With members of various British and Dutch churches, New York also tolerated different
religions. New York's harbor and river systems significantly contributed to its economic
growth and importance.
New York's convenient location along water trade routes allowed farmers to easily ship
wheat and other agricultural goods to markets in America and in Europe, as well as to
import manufactured goods from markets abroad. This allowed New York to grow into a
major commercial hub and one of the biggest cities in the British colonies.
France, like its European rival, Great Britain, settled colonies to secure the valuable
natural resources of North America, such as furs, and export them to Europe. Quebec
was the first permanent French settlement in North America.
The founders of the British colonies were greatly influenced by an economic theory
known as mercantilism. This theory held that Earth had a limited supply of wealth in
the form of natural resources, especially gold and silver, so the best way to become
a stronger nation was to acquire the most wealth. Because the world's wealth was
thought to be limited, the more one country had, the less any other country could have.
Consequently, as a nation became stronger and wealthier, its enemies became poorer
Growth of the African Population
As tobacco farmers and other cash-crop farmers prospered, they greatly expanded
the size of their farms. There were never enough workers available to plant, grow,
and harvest the crops, so farmers turned to African slaves to do this work. When the
Virginia Company founded Jamestown in 1607, there were no African slaves in British
North America. By 1700, however, there were thousands of African slaves throughout
the British colonies. The vast majority of these slaves were located in the Southern
colonies, where they supplied the labor required to support the region's agriculturally
are just some examples of how, throughout his life, Franklin sought ways to improve
himself (individualism) and to rise in society (social mobility)
The Great Awakening
Christian worship changed in the northeastern colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
Ministers said people would feel God's love only if they admitted their sins. People were
told that each believer should seek his or her own personal and emotional relationship
with God and that doing this was more important than the Puritan idea of congregations
gathering together to hear intellectual sermons. These ministers attracted enormous
audiences and often traveled from colony to colony to preach to anyone who wanted
to listen, regardless of what church he or she might belong to. Christianity grew,
although established churches lost members to the new way of Christian worship. Some
preachers said American society had become as corrupt as the English society the
colonists' ancestors had escaped. As a result, some people started saying that America
needed to cut its ties with Britain to keep its religion pure.
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War resulted from a long-simmering rivalry between Great Britain
and France and their competition for territory in North America. The French and Indian
War broke out in 1754 when Great Britain challenged the French for control of the
land that is now Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Native Americans tended to support
the French because as fur traders, the French were not as focused as the British on
building permanent settlements. Great Britain eventually won the war
Treaty of Paris
which ended the French and Indian War, forced France to
turn over control of Canada to Great Britain. France also surrendered its claim to all
land east of the Mississippi River, with the exception of the city of New Orleans
Britain's American colonists believed the king and Parliament were violating their rights
as Englishmen. Among the rights they felt were being violated were protection from
taxation without representation, the right to a trial by a jury of their peers, protection
from searches without warrants, and protection from having troops quartered on their
property. Parliamentary actions to tax the colonists or to enforce the tax laws provoked
a negative reaction from the colonists that eventually led to open rebellion. These
actions included the Stamp Act and the Intolerable Acts
The Stamp Act
required the colonists to print newspapers, legal documents, playing
cards, and so forth on paper bearing special stamps (similar to postage stamps).
Buying the stamped paper was the equivalent of paying a tax. Some colonists
formed groups called the Sons of Liberty to stop distribution of the stamped paper.
Nine colonies sent representatives to the Stamp Act Congress, which sent a formal
protest to the king
The Intolerable Acts
closed the port of Boston as punishment for the Boston Tea
Party. These acts also allowed British officials accused of major crimes to be tried
in England and forced the colonists to house British troops on their property.
France decided to support the Americans during the Revolution as a result of the
American victory at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. Benjamin Franklin, the American
diplomat in Paris, signed economic and military treaties with France for the United
States. France sent army and navy units to fight on the side of the Americans.
Britain's plan to counter the French-American alliance was to have General Charles
Cornwallis move the war to the southern states to try to separate those colonies from
revolutionary forces in the North. He immediately succeeded in a series of British
victories, but the Americans were able to prevent a complete victory in the South.
Cornwallis pursued the Americans into Virginia but met with heavy resistance. Wishing
to maintain communications with Great Britain by sea, the British general retreated
to the coastal town of Yorktown. His forces were attacked by the combined French
and American armies and a French fleet. Cut off from any reinforcements, Cornwallis
was forced to surrender, and the American Revolution was nearly at an end in
1783 Treaty of Paris
The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally concluded the American Revolutionary War. The
United States won its independence from Great Britain and gained control of land
stretching to the Mississippi River. Britain ceded Florida to Spain and certain African
and Caribbean colonies to France
Daniel Shays led more than a thousand farmers who, like him, were burdened with
personal debts caused by economic problems stemming from the states' Revolutionary
War debts. Shays and his men tried to seize a federal arsenal in Massachusetts.
This was just one of many protests that debt-ridden farmers made during this
period. Without the power to tax,
Federalists and anti-Federalists. Federalists generally
wanted a strong national government that could handle national economic, political, and
diplomatic issues for the country. Anti-federalists, on the other hand, wanted to maintain
the sovereignty of the individual states. They were concerned that too much power
would be given to the national government and the states would lose control over their
individual interests. They believed that a national government with a strong executive
branch would be able to dominate the states and take away the rights of individual
citizens. In particular, delegates from the small states worried that they would lose
representation in a national government that favored states with larger populations.
James Madison managed to convince the delegates from the small states and large
states to give up some of their demands
This system had been
influenced by the writings of Baron de Montesquieu. He suggested that a separation
of powers between the branches of government would ensure that none of the
branches would become too powerful. The compromise also created a legislative
branch with two houses (the House of Representatives and the Senate) that satisfied
the concerns of representation that the small states and large states had
Presidency of John Adam
The election of 1796 was a bitter contest between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson,
with Adams winning by a small margin. Like Washington, Adams set examples that
influenced future presidents as well as the course of American history. However, his
administration was plagued by conflicts with France and Great Britain that crippled
the nation's economy, and he received harsh political criticism from supporters
of Vice President Jefferson. To aid Adams, Congress passed laws that increased
citizenship requirements so that Jefferson could not receive support from the immigrant
community. Congress also tried to stop the criticism with attempts to limit the speech
and press rights of Jefferson's followers. Jefferson and Madison then argued that states
could refuse to enforce federal laws they did not agree with. This was the beginning of
the states' rights concept.
War of 1812: Results
A major result of the War of 1812 was the end of all U.S. military hostility with Great
Britain. Never again would Britain and the United States wage war over diplomacy,
trade, territory, or any other kind of dispute. America's army and navy were firmly
established as worthy opponents of any European military force. Another important
result of the war was the surge of nationalism that spread across the country,
particularly because of the victory of General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New
Orleans. People had a stronger sense of national identity as Americans rather than as
citizens of individual states.
In 1823, President James Monroe warned the nations of Europe not to meddle in the
politics of North and South America. When a group of European countries planned to
help one another recapture American colonies that had gained independence, Monroe
announced that the United States would prevent European nations from interfering with
independent American countries. Further, Monroe said the United States would remain
neutral in wars between European nations and their American colonies, but, if battles
took place in the New World, the United States would view such battles as hostile
actions against the United States. In summary, the Monroe Doctrine defined an aspect
of U.S. foreign policy to which America still holds today
Missouri Compromise of 1820
The state constitution proposed by Missouri allowed slavery. Because half the states
in the Union allowed slavery while the other half did not, statehood for Missouri would
upset the U.S. Senate's equal balance between pro-slavery and anti-slavery senators.
This issue was resolved when Congress passed the Missouri Compromise. Under the
compromise, Maine would be admitted to the Union as a free state, Missouri would be
admitted as a slave state, and slavery would be prohibited in the northern part of the
Louisiana Territory, except for Missouri. Once again, half the states would allow slavery
while the other half would not, and the Senate would retain its equal balance between
pro-slavery and anti-slavery senators—until the next state asked to enter the Union.
Vice President John C. Calhoun argued with President Andrew Jackson about the rights
of states to nullify (cancel) federal laws they opposed. The Nullification Crisis resulted
when southern states sought to nullify a high tariff (tax) Congress had passed on
manufactured goods imported from Europe. This tariff helped northern manufacturers
but hurt southern plantation owners, so legislators nullified the tariff in South Carolina.
Calhoun, a South Carolinian, resigned from the vice-presidency to lead the efforts of
the southern states in this crisis. His loyalty to the interests of the southern region, or
section, of the United States, not to the United States as a whole, contributed to the
rise of sectionalism. It also contributed to the development of states' rights ideology
in the South. This was the idea that states have certain rights and political powers
different from those held by the federal government and that the federal government
may not violate these rights. The idea of states' rights had first appeared during the
debates of the Constitutional Convention. The idea of states' rights would become
closely tied to the issue of slavery in the South.
In 1845, the United States took Texas into the Union and set its sights on the Mexican
territories of New Mexico and California. U.S. annexation of Texas and other factors
led to war in 1846. During the conflict, the United States occupied much of northern
Mexico. When the United States eventually won the war, this region was ceded to the
United States as a part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Compromise of 1850
The expansion of U.S. territory and population growth in the West continued to fuel
political tensions between free states and slave states over the extension of slavery.
Many members of Congress became increasingly concerned that the issue of slavery
threatened the survival of the nation. Those who favored slavery and those who
opposed slavery agreed to five laws that addressed these concerns. They included
1) California was admitted as a free state; 2) Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory
were organized with slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty; 3) Texas's boundaries
were established and the federal government assumed Texas's preannexation debts;
4) the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C.; and 5) the Fugitive Slave Act was
strengthened. Collectively, the five laws are known as the Compromise of 1850. The
Compromise of 1850 eased sectional tensions over slavery for a short time.
In 1854, Congress again took up the issue of slavery in new U.S. states and territories.
This time, the territories were Kansas and Nebraska, and Congress approved the
Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and gave the
settlers in all new territories the right to decide for themselves whether theirs would
be a free or a slave state. This made a pro-slavery doctrine, popular sovereignty (rule
by the people), the law of the United States. Popular sovereignty was a democratic
A Comparison of the North and the South
When Southern forces opened fire on Union forces at Fort Sumter, they began a war
that would last four years and take the lives of 821,000 soldiers. From the start, the
Confederacy was at a serious disadvantage. The Southern economy differed greatly
from the economy of the Northern states. The North had a larger manufacturing
economy and produced more steel and war materials than the South. The North also
had a much larger railroad network to move goods, troops, and supplies. In the end,
the numerical and industrial superiority of the Northern economy proved too much for
the South to overcome.
Blacks continue to take the civil rights issue in their own hands. what was the purpose of the 1957 Martin Luther King Junior formed Southern Christian leadership conference and why was the church so Important to include
The weakening of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s was encouraged by the Soviet policy of
Why did Felix feel that it was necessary to discuss the moral character of the enslaved people who were petitioning for freedom?
Who is an example of a historian that was a pessimist and why?
Recommended textbook explanations
HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
United States History: Beginnings to 1877
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History: Modern America (California)
Alan Taylor, Emma J. Lapsansky-Werner, Peter B. Levy, Randy Roberts
Sets with similar terms
Early American History (27 Week Test)
history march exam 2!!
Other Quizlet sets
Environmental Science Chapter 6
Romeo and Juliet
ENHANCING YOUR OWN EFFECTIVENESS
Business Ethics Exam 1
Why were there no equivalents of the Ballarat Reform League in the Eureka Stockade in California, given that the two rushes were similar in so many ways and fostered similar anti-Chinese violence and legislation?
How did the arrests of Freedom Riders in Mississippi begin a chain of decisions and actions that ultimately led to a near collapse of segregated busing?
Explain the significance of: William Howard Taft, Sixteenth Amendment, Seventeenth Amendment, Clayton Antitrust Act, Federal Reserve Act.
What role did Emilio Aguinaldo play in the rebellion that occurred in the Philippines? What effect did his actions have upon Americans?