22.1 World History
Terms in this set (59)
What was the Renaissance?
a rebirth of learning and the arts that inspired curiosity in many fields
During the Renaissance, what did scholars begin to question?
ideas that had been accepted for hundreds of years
The Reformation prompted followers to challenge what?
accepted ways of thinking about God and salvation
Before 1500, scholars generally decided what was true or false by referring to what?
the Greeks and Romans, the Bible
What is stated in the geocentric theory?
the Earth is the center of the universe
Whose idea was the geocentric theory?
Who expanded on the geocentric theory?
Why did the geocentric theory make sense from a Christian standpoint?
Christianity taught that God had deliberately placed the Earth at the center of the universe as a special place on which the great drama of life unfolded
What was the Scientific Revolution?
a new way of thinking about the natural world based upon careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs
What discoveries and circumstances led to the Scientific Revolution and helped spread its impact? (3)
discoveries of new land opened Europeans to the possibility that there were new truths to be found; invention of the printing press; better scientific instruments
Who came up with the heliocentric theory?
What research did Copernicus do?
25 years of studying planetary movements
What did Copernicus's theory state?
the sun was the center of the universe
Why did Copernicus not publish his findings until the end of his life?
feared ridicule and persecution (knew his theory contradicted religious views)
What book did Copernicus write?
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies
What did Kepler conclude?
the planets had elliptical orbits
What did Galileo Galilei do? (occupation)
What did Galileo build?
his own telescope
What was Galileo's book?
How many moons did Galileo find on Jupiter?
What did Galileo discover about the sun?
it had dark spots
What did Galileo note about the moon?
it had a rough, uneven surface
What and whose theory did Galileo shatter?
Aristotle; moon and stars were made of a pure, perfect substance
What laws did Galileo create?
the laws of motion
Who did Galileo support?
What did the church fear would happen if people believed Galileo's findings?
other church teachings would begin to be questioned
What book the Galileo write about the theories of Copernicus and Ptolemy?
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
What happened after Galileo published his second book?
Galileo was summoned to Rome by the pope to stand trial before the Inquisiton
What did Galileo do while on trial?
read aloud a signed confession stating that Copernicus's ideas were false under the threat of torture
What did Galileo do for the rest of his life after trial?
lived under house arrest
What is the scientific method?
a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Who believed that by better understanding the world, scientists would generate practical knowledge that would improve people's lives?
Who attacked medieval scholars for relying too heavily on the conclusions of Aristotle and other ancient thinkers?
Who urged scientists to experiment and draw conclusions, instead of reasoning from abstract theories? (also what was this called)
Francis Bacon; empiricism (experimental method)
Who developed analytical geometry, which linked algebra and geometry?
How did Descartes say knowledge should be gained/ approached?
using mathematics and logic
Who believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason?
"I think therefore I am"
Modern scientific methods are based on the ideas of (2)
Bacon and Descartes
Who discovered gravity?
What is stated under the law of universal gravitation?
Every object in the universe attracts every other object. the degree of attraction depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them.
What book did Newton publish?
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Hod did Newton describe the universe?
it is like a giant clock with all parts working perfectly together in ways that could be expressed mathematically
What did Newton believe about God?
he was the creator of the universe ("the clockmaker")
Who created the first microscope?
Who was the first to use a microscope and what did he observe?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek; bacteria on tooth scrapings and red blood cells
Who developed the first mercury barometer?
What is a barometer?
a tool for measuring atmospheric pressure and predicting weather
Who created mercury thermometers?
Gabriel Fahrenheit and Anders Celsius
Who assumed that human anatomy was much the same as pigs and other animals?
What Flemish physician dissected humans and wrote a book of his findings?
What was Andreas Vesalius's book called?
On the Structure of the Human Body
Who developed the first vaccine?
What was the first vaccine for, and how was it created?
small pox; inoculation using cow pox
What book did Robert Boyle publish?
The Skeptical Chemist
What did Aristotle believe the physical world consisted of?
earth, air, fire, water
Who did Boyle challenge?
What idea did Boyle propose? (of what matter was made of)
matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways
What did Boyle's law explain?
how the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other