52 terms

Roman Art Midterm: Names and Terms

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Legendary Founding of Rome by Romulus
753 bc
The Early Republic
509-390 bc
Roman Expansion in Italy
390-264 bc
Expansion in the Mediterranean
264-133 bc
Decline of the Republic
133-31 bc
Hellenistic Period
323 bc (Death of A the G) - 31 bc
Battle of Actium (Oct. vs MA and Cleo)
31 bc
Octavian given Augustus name
27 bc
Augustus dies, deified by senate
14 ad
Greco- Roman
having the characteristics of Roman culture with a strong Greek influence
Aeneas
The son of Venus and Anchises, he was a noble fighter for Troy during the Trojan War. He escaped from Troy as the Greeks were sacking the city and went off in search of a place to establish the new Troy. He settled in Italy, where his descendants founded the city of Rome.
pietas
firm loyalty and devotion to ones country, gods, and family
Mars
(Roman mythology) Roman god of war and agriculture
EX. father of Romulus and Remus; counterpart of Greek Ares
cella
The chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classical temple, the room (Greek, naos) in which the cult statue usually stood.
appendage aesthetic
Roman Republican portrait sculptures that were customizable
hierarchical scale
The use of scale (often unnatural) to indicate relative importance/The most important figure is made the largest
Roman concrete
most important building material innovation of Romans, made of water, ash and lime water, porous and unatractive so Roman architects faced it with marble or stone
opus incertum
A Roman method of walling made by facing concrete with stones of irregular shape.
barrel vault
the simplest form of vault consisting of an unbroken series of arches; it forms a tunnel like shape
vault
an arched structure used to hold up a ceiling or roof
castrum
An Ancient Roman walled military camp with gridded rectangular layout, later a castle, fort, or fortified town
orthogonal plan
The imposition of a strict grid plan on a site, regardless of the terrain, line with cardinal directions
cardo
the North/South line used in orthogonal city plans
decumanus
the East/West line used in orthogonal city plans
insula
Roman urban apartment house
verism
interest in the faithful reproduction of the immediate visual and tactile appearance of subjects (truthful), shows experience, age, etc.
Over the top realistic, often exaggerated
aureus
The largest roman coin, made of Gold
denarius
the Silver coin of the Roman Empire
sestertius
a common Roman coin, made from brass
Pompey Magnus
106-48 bc; renowned general (success in Africa, Asia, and ag. pirates), member of first triumverate, but opposed Caesar; fled and killed
Julius Caesar
100-44 bc; claimed descent from Venus, conqueror of Gaul; in 44 bc became dictator perpetuo; assassinated in the Senate on Ides of March
Mark Antony
83-30 bc; co-consul with Caesar in 44 bc; allied with lover Cleopatra in Civil War post Caesar's death; defeated at Actium; committed suicide in 30 bc
Cleopatra
69-30 B.C. Ruler of Egyptian government in Alexandria who backed Caesar in the civil war he waged from 49 to 45 B.C.
beautiful and charismatic queen of Egypt, mistress of Julius Caesar and later of Mark Antony; killed herself to avoid capture by Octavian
Octavian
63 bc-14 ad; grand-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar; victor of Civil War post Caesar's death; Rome's first emperor in 27 bc
Augustus
r. 27bc-14 ce; first emperor of Rome; used name Caesar until given Augustus
Livia
Rome's first empress; while pregnant, she divorced her husband Tib. Cl. Nero to marry Octavian in 39 bc after she had Tiberius (the next emperor)
Marcellus
M. Cl. Marcellus; son of Octavia an her first husband; 25 bc married Julia (Aug's daughter w/ Scribonia), but died in 23 bc
Agrippa
M. Vipsanius Agr; lifelong friend of Aug; successful navy commander at Actium; preferred successor after Marcellus' death; married Julia in 21 bc; d. 12 bc
Tiberius
Livia's son; married Julia after Agrippa's death; Aug. adopted him in 4 bc after death of Gaius Caesar (first son of Agr. and Julia); became next emperor
Caligula
r. 37 -41 ad; third emperor of Rome; Name means "Little Boots", became insainly violent, claimed to be all the gods combined, made his horse a consul, murdered by his own army after insulting them
Claudius
r. 41-54 ad; fourth emperor of Rome; brother of Germanicus, uncle of Caligula, grandson of Octavia;, Became emporer after Tiberius' death, and conquered Britain. Married Agrippina, and adopted her son Nero. She poisoned Claudius so Nero could be emperor.
Nero
r. 54-68 ad; adopted son of Claudius; fifth emperor of Rome; , one of the more perverse emperors, who began massive execution of Christians to deflect suspicions that he burned most of Rome's residential section
Fauces
narrow foyer; entrance to house
atrium
central reception room
compluvium
opening in roof for rain water and light
impluvium
basin for rainwater collection
cubicula
sleeping quarters; private bedrooms
alae
(ala); wings that created a shared space/hallway
tablinum
home office; where the paterfamilias met with clients
triclinium
formal dining room
hortus
residential garden space
Classicism
refers to High Classical era in Athens; the Golden Age; height of Athenian power and influence