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Hurst: Acid/Base Balance
Terms in this set (35)
The lung chemical(s) are/is?
The kidney chemical(s) are/is?
bicarb & hydrogen
How do the kidneys keep pH within normal range?
The kidneys remove acid through urine, and cause the body to retain or excrete bicarb (base).
How long do the kidneys take to correct pH imbalance?
hours to days
How do the lungs keep the pH within normal range?
The lungs control CO2 (acid) by exhalation.
Hypoventilation = retain CO2; hyperventilation - eliminate CO2
How long do the lungs take to correct pH imbalance?
Minutes. Lungs respond fast.
Increased CO2 = decreased ___________.
LOC or O2
What are the causes of respiratory acidosis? (7)
hypoventilation (retaining CO2), abdominal surgery, narcotics, sleeping pills, pneumothorax, collapsed lung, pneumonia
With respiratory acidosis, what chemical is causing the problem?
too much CO2
With respiratory acidosis, which body part will compensate?
kidneys by secreting bicarb and excreting acid (thru urine)
What are the s/s of respiratory acidosis? (4)
HA, confusion, sleepy, hypoxia
What are the early s/s of hypoxia?
restlessness & tachycardia
If a pt is restless, what should the nurse think of first?
hypoxia--check O2 sat
What are the treatments for respiratory acidosis?
fix the breathing problem, treat PNA, pneumothorax pts will have chest tube(s), if pt post-op, encourage CDB
What can happen to the pt if respiratory acidosis is left untreated?
With respiratory acidosis, which organ is sick and which organ will compensate?
Lungs are sick and kidneys will compensate
With respiratory alkalosis, which organ is sick and which organ will compensate?
Lungs are sick and the kidneys will compensate
In respiratory alkalosis, which chemical is causing the problem?
Losing too much CO2-pt is breathing too fast
With respiratory alkalosis, is the pt hyperventilating or hypoventilating?
hyperventilating (blowing off too much CO2)
What are the causes of respiratory alkalosis? (3)
hyperventilation, hysterical, acute ASA overdose
What are the s/s of respiratory alkalosis? (4)
lightheaded, faint, peri-oral numbness, tingling in the fingers & toes
What are the treatments for respiratory alkalosis?
breathe into a paper bag encourage the pt to decrease respiratory rate, treat the cause and monitor ABGs
In metabolic acidosis & alkalosis, what organ is sick and what organ is compensating?
the kidneys are sick and the lungs will compensate
What are the problem chemical(s) with metabolic acidosis or alkalosis?
bicarb & hydrogen
What are Kussamal's respirations?
rapid, deep & sighing breathing, air hunger, commonly seen with metabolic acidosis or DKA
What are the causes of metabolic acidosis? (4)
DKA (d/t ketone production), starvation (d/t ketone production), renal failure, severe diarrhea (intestines contain a lot of bicarb)
What are the s/s of metabolic acidosis?
hyperkalemia, increased respiratory rate (eliminating CO2), s/s also depend on the cause
What are the treatments for metabolic acidosis?
Treat the cause, IVP sodium bicarb (won't fix problem, but will buy time to find the cause
What drug can help with metabolic acidosis?
Sodium bicarb (won't fix the prob, but will buy time to find the cause)
metabolic acidosis = hyper___________
metabolic alkalosis = hypo___________.
What are the causes of metabolic alkalosis?
loss of upper GI content, too many antacids (too much base), too much IV bicarb
What are the s/s of metabolic alkalosis? (4)
depends on the cause, watch LOC, hypokalemia (watch for muscle cramps & arrhythmias), decreased respiratory rate
Serum K+ will go ______ in metabolic acidosis and go _______ in metabolic alkalosis.
What are the treatments for metabolic alkalosis? (2)
fix the problem and replace K+
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