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tunica intima

single thin layer of endothelium that lines the lumen of a vessel

tunica media

middle coat composed of smooth muscle and elastin

tunica externa

outermost tunic composed of areolar or fibrous connective tissue


carry blood away from heart (oxygenated blood in systemic circulation) (deoxygenated blood in pulmonary circulation)


carry blood to the heart (deoxygenated blood in systemic circulation) (oxygenated blood in pulmonary circulation)


largest artery of the body

pulmonary circuit

brings oxygen-poor/CO2-rich blood into close proximity of alveoli in lungs

circle of willis

anastomosis between vertebral and internal carotid arteries; unites the anterior and posterior blood supplies of brain

hepatic portal system

connects capillary beds in GI tract with those in liver without first passing through heart; allows for immediate processing of the substances in blood obtained from GI tract through digestion

fetal circulation

contains several vascular structures unique to the fetus; allows blood to bypass fetal lung, which in non-functional in utero so that umbilical vessels circulate blood to and from placenta via umbilical cord

artery (arteriole) -> capillary -> venule -> vein

pathway for circulation at site of exchange

artery (arteriole) -> capillary -> venule (vein) -> capillary -> venule -> vein

pathway for circulation at portal system

gastric vein, splenic vein, inferior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein

four veins that drain into the hepatic portal vein

ligamentum arteriosum

name of ductus arteriosus in a newborn

fossa ovalis

name of foramen ovalis in a newborn

ligamentum venosum

name of ductus venosus in a newborn

ligamentum teres

name of umbilical vein in a newborn

medial umbilical ligaments

name of umbilical arteries in a newborn

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