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The study of personality through interpretation of behavior or nonverbal cues. A counselor may use the aforementioned factors or tests to label the client in a diagnostic category.

Milton H. Erickson

Associated with brief psychotherapy and innovative techniques in hypnosis.

Jay Haley

His work includes strategic and problem solving therapy, often uses paradox. Influenced by Milton H. Erickson.

Arnold Lazarus

Pioneer in behavior therapy movement, especially in systematic desensitization. Associated with multimodal therapy.

William Perry

Known for his ideas in adult cognitive development, especially college students. Came up with Dualistic thinking and Relativistic Thinking.

Dualistic Thinking

Concept developed by William Perry by which things are classified as good or bad, right or wrong. In other words, black or white thinking.

Relativistic Thinking

Not everything is right or wrong, it depends on the situation. There is more than one way to view the world. Higher order thinking than dualistic thinking, and should occur in adulthood.

Robert Kegan

His model stresses interpersonal development, is billed as a constructive model of development, meaning an individual constructs reality throughout the entire life span.

Who made the following statement, "The ego is dependent on the Id"?


What is a common criticism of Jean Piaget's findings?

His findings were often based on his own children.


Piaget's term for a system which permits the child to test out things in the physical world.

In children, which concept is the most easily understood, volume or mass?

Mass. Volume comes later, usually in Piaget's Concrete Operations Stage.

Lev Vygotsky

Was as odds with Piaget, and felt development did not take place naturally. Stages unfold due to educational intervention. Coined the term Zone of Proximal Development, which describes the difference between a child's performance without a teacher verses that which he or she is capable of with an instructor.John B. Watson Father of American Behaviorism.


Biological term, each stage emerges from the one before it.

Lawrence Kolhberg

Focused on Moral Development. Stated there are there levels, each divided into two stages. His levels: Preconventional, Conventional, and Post Conventional. Only 40% of people enter into the Post Conventional Stage in life.

Menninger Clinic of Kansas

Psychoanalytic foothold, conducted landmark work in biofeedback.


Technique to help individuals learn to control bodily processes more effectively.


Means Religious and Spiritual in our field.

Identity Crisis

Coined by Erikson, where a person suffers from knowing who they are and what they want to do. People may experience this in his stages

Harry Stack Sullivan

Came up with a stage theory for childhood development similar to Erickson, named the psychiatry of interpersonal relations. The following are the stages: infancy, childhood, the juvenile era, preadolescence, early adolescence, and late adolescence. Biological issues are less important than interpersonal and sociocultural demands of society.

Hedonism (or native hedonism)

Occurs in the second stage of the Preconventional level of Kohlberg's moral developmental theory, where a child states, "If I am nice to others, I will get what I want".

Maturation Theory

Behavior is guided exclusively via hereditary factors until the necessary stimuli are present in the environment. An individual's neural development must be at a certain level of maturity for the behavior to unfold. Freud and Erikson are classified as Maturationist.

John Bowlby

Worked with bonding and attachment and stated they have survival value, called adaptive significance. To lead a normal life, a child must bond with an adult before the age of three. If the bond is severed, it is known as object loss, and is the breeding ground for abnormal behavior. The three stages of object loss: protest, despair, detachment.

Arnold Gesell

Used a one way mirror for observing children. A maturationist, he felt development is primarily determined through genetics/heredity. Thus, a child must be ready before a certain level of education (kindergarten).

Midlife Crisis

Occurs between the ages of 35 and 45 for men, and about five years earlier for women. This can occur during the Generativity vs. Stagnation stage in Erikson's theory.

Daniel Livinson

Wrote two books, Season's of a Man's Life, and Season's of a Woman's Life, suggesting a midlife crisis was a good thing as it helped people to determine priorities. He stated a midlife crisis occurs for men ages 40-45, and women ages 35-40.

Harry Harlow

Stated that attachment was an innate tendency and is not learned. To demonstrate this, he put monkeys in isolation, and compared them to monkeys not in isolation, and found the monkeys in isolation were disturbed. He also placed monkeys with terry cloth mothers and others with wire cloth mothers. Baby Monkeys spent on average 16 hours a day with the terry cloth mother, and 1 and ½ hours with the wire mothers, suggesting contact comfort is important to bonding and attachment.

Maccoby and Jacklin

Found through research that males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations. This often does not occur until high school, and may be the result of sex role differences.

When does Conformity peek?

In the early teen years.

Manifest Content

Freudian term, in a dream it is the surface content, or the actual dream itself.

Latent Content

The deeper meaning of the manifest content, this is the deep level, within the unconscious.

Who commits suicide more, males or females?

Males commit suicide more, however women attempt suicide more. Theory suggests males use more violent means and thus are more successful.

What is the suicide rate in America?

11 / 100,000

Stanley Coopersmith

Found that child-rearing practices have impacts on self esteem. Children with high self esteem were punished just as often as those with low self esteem, however they were told the meaning of the rules, and understood the reasoning for them. Children with low self esteem had less structure and were not told why some things were bad.


Meaning head to foot.


The portion of trait that can be explained by genetic factors.


Any psychological process which cannot be directly observed.

In Vivo

Exposure to the actual situation in real life. Example: In Vivo Desensitization.


Researched the matter of depth perception in children by using a visual cliff. The visual cliff is a devise which uses a glass sheet with simulates a drop-off. Infants will not attempt to cross the drop-off, suggesting depth perception is an inborn trait.


Scientists can only learn from objective facts. Also known as associationism. Comes from the philosophy of John Locke. Empiricism comes from the Greek word meaning experience. Empiricism is the forerunner of Behaviorism.

Quantitative Change

Changes which can be measured or tested. Empiricists view change as quantitative.

Qualitative Change

Change that may not be measurable. Instead of looking at the smaller parts of an individual, the entire person is taken into account. Gestalt is an example of a qualitative change model.


Extremely withdrawn and isolated.


The study of animals behavior in their natural environment.

Konrad Lorenz

Discovered imprinting, the instinctual behavior in which the infant instinctively follows the first moving object it encounters, which is usually the mother. Lorenz had baby goslings view him as the first moving object, resulting in them following him instead of their mother. Thus, during critical periods learning must occur or it will not occur at all. He also stated that humans are naturally aggressive, and compared us to a wolf. To limit this aggression, we need to utilize catharsis to get our anger out, using methods such as competitive sports.


Noticing key features of an object while not noticing the rest of it. Occurs in Piaget's preoperational stage.

R. J. Havinghurst

Proposed developmental tasks for infancy and early childhood (learning to walk or eat solid foods), tasks for middle childhood, ages 6 to 12 (learning to get along with peers or developing a conscience), tasks of adolescence, ages 12 to 18 (preparing for marriage and a career), tasks for earl adulthood, age 19 to 30 (selecting a mate and starting a family), tasks for middle age, 30 to 60 (assisting teenage children to become responsible adults and developing leisure), tasks of later maturity, age 60 to death (dealing with the death of a spouse and retirement).

The Primal Scene

Psychoanalytic concept, where the child sees his parents having sexual intercourse, or the child is seduced by the parent. This can lead to neuroses later in life

When did Elementary school counseling and guidance services begin gain momentum?

In the 1960's.

Daniel J. Levinston

Conducted research at Yale that found that 80% of men in the study experienced moderate to severe midlife crisis. An age 30 crisis occurs in men when they feel it will soon be to lake to make later changes.


A break from reality which can include hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders.

Martin E. P. Seligman

Studied learned helplessness, by electrocuting dogs during specific situations by which the dogs would give up and not fight the shocks.

Risky Shift Phenomenon

A group decision is often more liberal than an individual decision.

Frank Parsons

Called the father of guidance. In the 1900's, Parsons set up centers to help individuals in search for work. Was the first pioneer to focus heavily on sociocultural issues.

What is the divorce rate in the US?

Around 50%.

Humanistic Psychology

Known as third force psychology, and is seen in Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

Higher Order Needs

Any need which is not physiological, also known as Metaneeds.


Down Syndrome has also been called Mongolism due to the slanted eyes.


Hereditary condition which is an amino acid metabolic difficulty that causes retardation unless the baby is placed on a special diet

Klinefelter's Symdrome

Hereditary condition which males show no masculinity at puberty.

Turner's Syndrome

Hereditary condition where females have no gonads or sex hormones.

Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)

Results whenever a releaser in the environment is present. The sequence of behavior will not very.

Robert Kegan

Stated the client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction. His six stages of life development include: incorporative, impulsive, imperial, interpersonal, institutional and interindividual.


The balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and that which is changed (accommodation).

Counseling a client from a different social and/or cultural background

Cross-cultural counseling, multicultural counseling, and intercultural counseling.


Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. ACA division that deals with multicultural counseling issues.


The majority culture, it is the dominant culture or culture that is accepted by the majority.

Culture Epoch Theory

All cultures pass through the same stages of development in terms of evolving and maturing.

Eric Berne

Father of Transactional Analysis, suggested the group is held together by a bond between the leader and the group members.

Emile Durkheim

One of the founders of modern sociology. Researched suicide.

William McDougall

Father of Hormic Psychology. Felt genetics played a role in group interaction. Believed in eugenics, by which more desirable people can be bread.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Prohibited discrimination for reasons of gender, race, religion or national origin.

Leon Festinger

Stated friendship and attraction are highest for apartment dwellers living next door to each other.


People who are in close proximity to each other are attracted to each other.


Behavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in which the behavior occurs

Carol Gilligan

Was critical to Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development as she felt it was more applicable to males than females.

John Dollard and Neal Miller

Came up with the frustration-aggression theory, which states when people become blocked and cannot achieve a goal, they become frustrated which leads to aggression.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Devised by Leon Festinger, suggested individuals are motivated to reduce tension and discomfort, thus putting an end to the dissonance.


Beliefs regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior. If Mores are broken, people are often punished, often via legal action.


Similar to Mores, but often cause embarrassment thus the punishments are lighter and often do not account for legal action.

Clemmont Vontress

Suggested multicultural counselors would do well to remember that we all are part of a universal culture.


One or two word sentences often spoken to children one year of age or older, often occurs before the age of four.

Emory Bogardus

Developed a social distance scale which evaluated how an individual felt towards other ethnic groups.


Defined primarily via norms and values.


Differs from a culture in that a society is a self-perpetuating independent group which occupies a definitive territory.


Ethnic and racial minorities integrate or adopt cultural beliefs and custom from the majority or dominate culture.

Therapeutic Surrender

When a client stops resisting the efforts of the therapist and begins to listen to what is being stated.

Monolithic Perspective

You see all members of a specific race or group as identical to each other.


Emotional content of a word, not the dictionary definition.

Victor Frankl

Father of Logotherapy, existential form of treatment which focuses on healing through meaning.


Insider's perception of the culture. Each person is an individual within a culture, therefore differences may exist from one culture to another.


Sameness between clients. All clients have things in common; therefore one uses the same approaches on one person as another, regardless of culture.


Change comes from within.


Change comes from the outside, or the environment.

F. H. Allport

Created the concept of social facilitation, where an individual who is given a task to memorize a list of numbers will do better in a group then if he were alone.

Sleeper Effect

After a period of time, one forgets the communicator but remembers the message.

McDougall and Ross

Wrote a book, Introduction to Social Psychology, where individual as well as group behavior is the result of inherited tendencies to seek goals.

Jacob Moreno

Pioneered psychodrama and coined the term group therapy.

Irvin Yalom

Existentialist, well known for strides in group work.

T. X. Barber

Espoused a cognitive theory of hypnotism.

Andrew Salter

Pioneer in the behavior therapy creating a paradigm dubbed conditioned reflex therapy, and a behavioristic theory of hypnosis and autohypnosis.

Robbers Cave Experiment

Teaches a cooperative goal can bring two hostile groups together, thus reducing competition and enhancing cooperation.

Joseph Breuer

Taught Freud the value of the talking cure, known as catharsis.

A A Brill

Known for the impact Freudian therapy has on career choice.

Transactional Analysis

Created by Eric Berne, there are three ego states, the Child (ID), The Adult (Ego) and the Parent (Superego).


In Freudian Theory, the Superego is the ego state concerned with moral behavior.


Freudians refer to the ego as the executive administrator of the personality and the reality principle.

The __________ is the balancing apparatus of the mind.


The ____________ strives for perfection


Anna O.

Often cited as the first psychoanalytic patient, she suffered from hysteria, and was given hypnosis treatment, which influenced Freud's Psychoanalysis.

Little Hans

Cites psychoanalytic theory, as he was a small child who had difficulty going into streets and was afraid of horses biting him. Freud used psychoanalytic constructs such as the Oedipus complex and castration anxiety to explain it. Is often used to contract Watson's little Albert story.

Daniel Paul Schreber

Spent 9 years in a mental hospital, and wrote a book, Memoirs of a Mental Patient. Freud got a copy and thought he was dealing with issues of homosexuality. He felt afraid he would be turned into women, mate with God, and create a new race.


Also known as catharsis.


Same as denial.

Sour Grapes Rationalization

When a good event does not occur, and you downplay it by saying you did not want the good event to occur anyway.

Sweet Lemon Rationalization

When a person states are good a bad set of circumstances is.

When a client becomes aware of a factor in his or her life that was heretofore unknown, counselors refer to it as ___________.

Insight. Insight is equated with the work of Wolfgang Kohler, a gestalt psychologist.


Meaning logic, term from Jung, by which men operate by Logos, or logic.


Intuition, term from Jung, by which women operate by Eros, or intuition.

In contrast with Freud, neo-Freudians emphasized _______________.

Social factors.


Myers Briggs Type Indicator: personality preference test, with four domains, each with two possibilities. From Jung.

Rudolph Dreikurs

Was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice, was a student of Adler.

Created the TAT.

Henry Murry.


Is most closely associated with Fredrick C. Thorne, and is a scientific term.

B.F. Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

Elaborated on Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect, which asserts responses accompanied by satisfaction will be repeated, while responses which produce discomfort will be stamped out.


Devised by Arnold Lazarus, stands for: B=Behaviors including arts, habits, and reactions. A=Affective responses such as emotions, feelings, and mood. S=Sensations, including hearing, touch, sight, smell and taste. I=Images, including memories and dreams. C=Cognitions including our thoughts, insights, and even our philosophy of life. I=Interpersonal relationships. D=Drugs, including alcohol, legal, illegal, and prescription drug use, diet, and nutritional supplementation.

Skinner's operant conditioning is also referred to as _______________.

Instrumental learning.

Respondent Behavior

Refers to reflexes.

The most effective time interval between the CS and Us is ____________________.

.5 or ½ of a second.

Stimulus Generalization

When a learned stimulus is generalized to another stimulus similar to the one learned. The stimulus is generalized, meaning it will occur for another stimulus without learning for that exact stimulus.

Stimulus Discrimination

When a stimulus is selected out from a group to be the only one that gives the CR.

Experimental Neurosis

When one cannot discriminate between two identical stimulus's, emotional disturbance will occur.

In general, behavior modification strategies are based heavily on ____________________, while behavior therapy emphasizes ___________________.

instrumental conditioning and Skinnerian principles / classical conditioning and Pavlovian principles.

Neal Miller

Conducted the first studies which demonstrated that animals could be conditioned to control autonomic processes.

Mary Cover Jones

Demonstrated that learning could serve as a treatment for a phobic reaction.


Neurolinguistic programming, created by John Grinder and John Bandler, studied therapists Virginia Satir, Milton H. Erickson, and Fritz Perls to discover what these therapists really did rather than what they said they did.

A counselor who says he or she practices depth psychology technically bases his or her treatment on ______________________.

Freud's topographic hypothesis.

A Counseling Paradigm

is a treatment model.

Robert Carkhuff

Created a 5 point scale to measure empathy, genuineness, concreteness, and respect. 1 is the poorest rating, while 5 is the best rating. 3 is considered the minimum level.

When something is added following an operant, it is known as a ___________, and when something is taken away it is called a _____________.

Positive reinforcer / negative reinforcer.

Higher Order Conditioning

When a new stimulus is paired with a previously learned stimulus. This new stimulus will take on the characteristics of the old, even if the old one is extinct.

A counselor decides to use biofeedback training to help a client raise the temperature in his right hand to ward off migraines. He would use a ______________________.

Temperature trainer.


Electromyogram, used to measure muscle tension.


Electroencephalogram, used to monitor brain waves.


Electrocardiogram, provides data on the heart.

Jacobson Relaxation Method

Relaxion technique where different muscles are tensed and released until the body is relaxed.

Premack Principle

A lower probability behavior is reinforced by a higher probability behavior.

The most difficult intermittent schedule to extinguish is the __________________.

Variable ratio.


Subjective units of distress scale. Used in systematic desensitization

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