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Holm Psychology Exam 4-merp!
Terms in this set (107)
Define social psychology
How people think about other people, interact in relationships and groups, and are affected by their relationship with others.
Why are humans "ultrasocial"
We depend on social interaction for health and survival.
inferences about the causes of events, own and others behaviours
"I did a good job because I'm smart"
"I did a good job because the task was easy"
fundamental attribution error?
Automatically blame them for their circumstances. Bias to attribute internal causes for other people's behavior.
What is a belief in a just world mean?
People get what they deserve. Example: prisoners getting raped
self serving bias?
Self-serving causes to our successes, external for our failures. Attribute external causes for your own feelings.
overall evaluation about some aspect of the world; Positive or negative evaluative reactions (ABCs) towards an object or person. Efficient way to make decisions and to size up the world.
What are the ABCs of evaluative reactions to person/object?
Every attitude we hold has three components: ABC model of attitudes:
A for affective (emotionally based reaction)
B for behavioral (based reaction)
C for cognitive (based reaction)
Any particular attitude can be based on one component more than another.
the affective component of attitude
one's feelings about the object or topic
the behavioral component of attitude
one's tendency to act in a particular way toward the object or topic
cognitive component of attitude
what you believe or know about the object or topic
conflict of attitude and behavior
Fessinger's experiment on cognitive dissonance
participants were paid less to tell someone that a boring task was really enjoyable later said that they enjoyed the task more than those who were paid a much greater amount.
efforts to change people's attitudes in response to information one provides
elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
a model that predicts responses to attempts at persuasion by distinguishing between different routes to persuasion.
the central route of persuasion
decisions based on the content of the message. logic & reason.
the peripheral route of persuasion
decisions based on the attractiveness and expertise of the source. About the # of arguments exposed to, not the quality.
the mere exposure effect
How simply becoming familiar with something or someone can change your attitude towards it
negative ATTITUDE or prejudgement toward members of a group
negative/unfair BEHAVIOR toward individuals from a specific group because of unjustified negative attitudes about that group
Creation of categories of people. In-group and out-group.
social learning theory?
Learning through the observation of others. Prejudice transmitted through culture.
The increase awareness of similarities, finding out the group are like the ingroup. Information inconsistent with stereotype.
people usually think of their own group favorably
is usually disliked and assumed to possess more undesirable traits.
Recategorizing people if you find similarities with them.
what kind of people can not re-catagorize?
People that view other groups as sub-human
working together with another group to reach a common goal.
importance of physical attraction?
Most important thing at the beginning of a relationship
The more you are exposed to someone, the more you like them
What is the importance of similarity in a relationship
provides the MOST success in the long run. Attitudes, backgrounds, beliefs, age, etc.
What is passionate love?
Like a drug. Physical, intense, sexual attraction
What is companionate love?
Triangular model of love
theory that says there are three dimensions of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment
secure style of attachment
Adults who seek closeness and interdependence in relationships and are not worried about the possibility of the loss of the relationship
avoiding style of attachment
Adults who are uncomfortable with intimacy and closeness
Adults who simultaneously fear and want a relationship
What is inequity in a relationship?
Positive interactions outweigh negative 5:1. If too much negative, they will break up.
What is the difference in infidelity between men and women?
Men become unfaithful just for physical reasons. Women become unfaithful because of an emotional breakdown in relationship.
What is the difference between men and women with jealousy?
Men become jealous of physical infidelity. Women become jealous from emotional infidelity, if he has a girl best friend.
2+ people with interaction and emotional connection
basic rules by how a group should act, just understood. Social norms affect how we are with people vs. how we are alone.
Written down or not, each person in a group is associated with a role. Quarterback, jokester, leader, etc.
Change in behavior in order to follow a group's norms. Comply with things they know are wrong.
solomon asch study?
Line test. 75% chance you will give the wrong answer because you conform.
What is a dissenter?
One who disagrees. Conformity will decease with a dissenter.
Complying with the direct command of someone in a group.
Stanley Milgram's shock study?
2 people, teacher and learner. Told them to shock them if they were wrong. test the hypothesis that Americans would not follow orders to inflict pain on others.
in stanley milgrams shock study What % of people administered maximum shock?
Change in performance with an audience.
Change in productivity in a group.
deindividuation and mob behavior?
Member among emotionally-aroused individuals. Likelihood of doing morally wrong is high. Lose sense of self, riots.
Group decisions are different than what the individual would decide. Often with juries in jury trials.
Lack of critical analysis among close group members. Leads to harm, injury, or death.
Helping someone without expecting anything in return
you're more likely to get help if there are a handful of people as opposed to a lot of people
the bystander effect?
decrease of offers in assistance as there is an increase in bystanders
diffusion of responsibility?
diminished sense of responsibility to help as # of bystanders grows
psychological (mental) disorder?
Mental condition characterized by symptoms that create significant distress, impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living, or lead to risk or harm
What is the approximate lifetime prevalence for a mental disorder?
What are the 3 D's of mental disorder?
distress, disability, danger
What is distress & an example?
Symptoms of mental illness cause emotional upheaval.
Example: out of control negative emotions. Sadness, anger, fear.
What is disability and an example?
Symptoms of mental illness impairs ability to function normally.
Example: damaged relationships, can't perform well in school, lose your job.
What is danger and an example?
Danger of violence towards other people & danger of violence towards self. Example is suicide.
the medical model?
Conceptualization of psychology abnormalities as diseases that have symptoms and causes and possible cures.
scientific labels that describe symptoms
causation and development of mental illness.
How someone will develop with treatment/without treatment.
What is the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders)
Textbook/guide used for mental illness
Presence of more than one disorder. Increases diagnostic difficulty.
What % of people never seek treatment and why?
People will act differently towards them, is seen as evil, embarrassment and shame
the diathesis-stress model?
biological predisposition to the disorder and specific environmental factors that combine to trigger the disorder.
Reaction to immediate threat or danger. Identifiable threat, physical reaction.
Worry about something that might happen in the future. Not currently identifiable. Cognitive reaction.
generalized anxiety disorder?
Anxiety-based, worrying disorder. NOT fearful. Worry about everything in all aspects of life, don't get a lot of sleep. 1/20 college students.
specific focus of fear. Panicked in the presence of something you fear.
Fear of going out in public. Linked to panic disorder - afraid of having panic attacks in public.
social anxiety disorder?
Fear of social interaction with other human beings.
Overwhelming attack of fear that occurs for no reason in a panic disorder.
Excessive, unwanted repetitive obsessions/thoughts. Compulsions and behaviors occur.
What is an obsession?
Recurrent and persistent THOUGHT, impulse, or image that feels intrusive
What is a compulsion?
repetitive BEHAVIOUR or mental act a person feels compelled to perform in response to an obsesion
What is the etiology of OCD?
disorder from being exposed to life-threatening traumatic event and feeling helpless. Nightmares & flashbacks.
What does classical conditioning have to do with PTSD?
sounds of bullets sound like 4th of july, things are associated with trauma.
Disorders of emotion
major depressive disorder?
depressed mood or loss of interest in nearly all activities.
What are the statistics of depression in the US?
10th leading cause of death, 2nd for people age 18-30
Cycling of two polar extremes over long periods of time.
the etiology of bipolar disorder?
STRONGEST GENETIC COMPONENT OF ALL MENTAL ILLNESS. 80-90% genetic.
the etiology of mood disorders?
hereditary factors. Genetic and enviornmental.
What neurotransmitter is affected in mood disorders
raised not allowed to become independent, kids who are abused. LEarn there is nothing you can do to change your circumstances, tend to get depression.
Amnesia, identity disorder, depresonalization-derealization disorder. People have traumatic events.
somatic symptom disorders?
have focus on physical symptoms - like pain - to the point that it causes major emotional distress and problems functioning.
Disorder of thought, lose contact with reality.
positive symptoms in schizophrenia?
Symptoms that only people with schizophrenia have. Hallucinations & delusions.
false perception of something that is not there
belief that can't possibly be real. Ex. you are an orange.
Absence of normal behavior. Bathing, talking, hygiene, cooking meat, etc.
What are the etiological factors for schizophrenia?
brain ventricle sizes are much larger than normal, have abnormality with dopamine.
antisocial personality disorder?
pathological disregard for others
what causes antisocial personality disorder
the amygdala is underactive
borderline personality disorder?
instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion
Legal concept that a person cannot be held responsible for his/her actions BECAUSE OF MENTAL ILLNESS
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