Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 14: Psychological Disorders- The Troubled Mind- merp!
Terms in this set (57)
Define psychological (mental) disorder
is a mental condition characterized by symptoms that create significant distress, impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living, or lead to significant risk or harm.
What is the approximate
lifetime prevalence for any psychological disorder? What is the
current prevalence of any psychological disorder?
Lifetime prevalence - 45-50% chance that you will develop a mental disorder in your lifetime.
Current prevalence - 25% experience diagnosable symptoms currently.
Suicide is the 2nd highest cause of death in college students.
3 Factors that make up psychological disorders
disability/impairment, and *danger/risk of harm
ex. someone who bursts into tears for no apparent reason. Is not always observable to others
ex. someone who becomes so anxious that they cannot perform their job
Danger/Risk of Harm
can occur when symptoms of a disorder cause an individual to put his or her or someone else's life at risk, purposely or accidentally. ex. Suicide or attacking other people.
Describe some historical myths and misassumptions about symptoms of mental illness
-Mentally ill people are generally not violent.
-96% of violent crime comes from people with no mental background.
-90% of suicides are from untreated mental health problems. (only 1/50 follow through with attempts)
*medical model for the classification of psychological disorders
the idea that mental disorders have symptoms and causes and possible treatment.
a means of distinguishing on disorder from another. (Given a label) Each diagnosis comes with a set of symptoms.
refers to the cause or history of illness.
forecast about the probable course of the illness.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM)
a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems.
This guide helps mental health professionals determine the nature of a people's difficulties and how to best help them.
The DSM has been criticized on a number of grounds:
-should be viewed with some skepticism (every action or thought suggestive of abnormality cannot be traced to an underlying disease)
PSYCHOLOGY IS NOT JUST BIOLOGY.
-does not provide a discrete boundary separating abnormality from normality
The DSM offers many benefits as well:
-offers a humane alternative to those suffering abnormal minds
-strives to create standards that can be used to ensure reliability in diagnosis.
predominant means used to categorize psychological disorders in the US
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual. (Depressed people may go to drugs or alcohol and become addicted)
70% of individuals with a diagnosable mental disorder never seek treatment- why?
stigma of mental illness- Why people don't get treatment? In part because of ignorance or they believe it makes them look weak. along w carrying the label (uncomfortable to & around others)
David Rosenhan's social experiment related to psychiatric labels
psychologist David Rosenhan led a social experiment in which several individuals reported to different mental hospitals complaining of "hearing voices"
-hospital reported this a fake symptom, until finally--> schizophrenic
-result: labeled person comes to view the self negatively (not just as mentally disordered but also as hopeless or worthless)
approach psychologists believe today in that psych disorders can be explained by considering factors from all the diff perspectives (
biological, psychological, social
) - both separately and by understanding their influences on each other.
Any mental illness that occurs from a biological or genetic vulnerability that can be triggered by nature. (most of the time by stress)
Culture can influence the conception of psychological disorders. The principal categories of psychological disturbance (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar) are identifiable in all cultures, but milder disorders may go unrecognized in some societies. There are no universal standards of normality and abnormality
Disorders created by culture:
-mal de ojo
an obsessive fear that one's penis will withdraw into one's abdomen and possibly cause death, seen only in Malaysia and other regions of southern Asia
involves intense craving for human flesh and fear that one will turn into a cannibal (a form of spirit possession), seen only among Algonquin Indian cultures (ancient Indians of Northeast US)
Mal de Ojo
(evil eye) is a disorder resulting from looking at a child with envy in Mediterranean cultures (Italy, Spain) and involves a variety of symptoms in children, such as fitful sleep, crying without cause, diarrhea, vomiting, and fever
form of social anxiety common in Japan involving a fear of offending or embarrassing others with one's odor, eye contact, or appearance
What are the defining symptoms of *anxiety disorders?
Characterized by excessive fear or authority. Every anxiety disorder has to do with worry, fear, or both
Generalized anxiety disorder
involves excessive anxiety and worry that is not consistently related to a specific object or situation (e.g., free-floating anxiety)
-chronic worried paired w 3 of following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance
if he or she endures frequent, unexpected panic attacks or fears additional panic attacks and, therefore, changes aspects of his or her life in hopes of avoiding them.
Panic disorder may lead to..*
may lead to agoraphobia ("fear of the marketplace")- a condition in which people fear or avoid public or open places that might be difficult to leave should panic symptoms occur (form of phobia)
-Phobias: an exaggerated, irrational fear
Phobias can be developed...
Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning.
Social Anxiety Disorder
(social phobia) fear of social interaction and contact. 12% lifetime prevalence. Most common in teens.
how orexins & anxiety sensitivity are related to the development of panic disorder
-from disturbances involving orexins, chemical messengers in the brain that play a role in wakefulness and vigilance
-those at a higher risk of random panic attacks have anxiety sensitivity, the belief that autonomic arousal (body arousal) can have harmful consequences (e.g., increased heart rate)
feels like heart attack, totally unexpected, life-altering. Some have panic attacks for absolutely no reason.
focus on a specific object or non-social situation (fear may be in presence of stimulus or in anticipation of it)
-fears of: animal, blood-injection injury, natural environment, situation, & miscellaneous cued by certain stimuli
Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD)
-2-3% of americans suffer at some point in life
-thoughts in persons head marked by the presence of obsessions either alone or in combination with compulsions
-*Has a very strong genetic component. (Runs in the family)
Obsessions vs Compulsions
obsessions - unwanted repetitive thoughts. (ex. cleanliness or germs)
compulsions - unwanted repetitive behaviors. (ex. washing or counting)
What causes PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder)?
PTSD is caused through classical conditioning.
-Can be obtained through events such as war, physical or sex abuse, terrorism, or natural disasters.
Diagnosis of PTSD is made when..
- The person experiences an event that involves serious injury or death.
- The traumatized person responds to the situation with fear and helplessness.
- The traumatized person experiences 3 types of symptoms (do not always appear immediately after the event)
3 symptoms (PTSD)
1. persistent re-experience of the event (reliving memories of event)
2. persistent avoidance of anything associated (avoiding people and events that re
3. heightened arousal (startle easily)
Mood disorders are conditions marked by..
by persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life
How are mood disorders disorders of emotional extremes?
they're "polar" in nature- either on the extremely low end of emotional spectrum (e.g., depression) or on the extremely high end of emotional spectrum (e.g., mania).
-so intense that it regularly affects cognition and behavior as well
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
characterized by at least 2 weeks of depressed mood/loss of interest in nearly all activities + at least 5 symptoms of depression (loss of pleasure in normal activities- called anhedonia, sleep or eating disturbances, loss of energy, restlessness or sluggishness, feelings of worthlessness & guilt, thoughts of suicide)
-also called unipolar mood disorder as it involves only one emotional extreme.
Stats of depression in the U.S.
-estimated that 1/5 ppl will experience depression
-women 2-3x more likely than men
-prevalence continually increasing across country
Depression varies depending on...
Culture: dont share the exact same symptom list.
Latin & Mediterranean cultures who are depressed complain of headache and fatigue. In Asian cultures, ppl with major depression are likely to report weakness, tiredness, or a sense of "imbalance" or other bodily symptoms.
Many suicide attempts are motivated by..?
the sense of hopelessness thats often a part of depression
-11th leading cause of death in U.S.
-among college/graduate students (18-30), its 2nd leading cause
Misconceptions (myths) about suicide:
-If you talk about suicide, you won't really do it.
-People who attempt suicide are "crazy."
-Someone who is determined to commit suicide can't be stopped.
-People who commit suicide weren't willing to seek help.
-Talking about suicide could give someone the idea, so you shouldn't talk or ask about it.
NONE OF THESE ARE TRUE.
a mood disorder marked by one or more episodes of mania, or the less intense hypomania, often alternating between periods of depression.
A manic episode (mania)
a period of at least a week where an abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood persists. It is not just having an "up" day.
-sufferer may be enthusiastic ab everything
-"increased tendency to engage in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences" (gambling, shopping, sexual activities)
Manic/hypomanic vs depression mood episodes
Manic or hypomanic episodes are often before or after episodes of depression. -cycling of the mood usually takes place over a # of yrs
-Prognosis for bipolar disorder is generally poor compared to unipolar mood disorders.
Biological perspectives of mood disorders
Mood disorders tend to run in families, so genes play a role in predisposing people to depression and bipolar illness
-****Bipolar disorder has the strongest genetic component of all disorders.
Psychological perspectives of mood disorders
-negative triad of depression
Aaron Beck proposes that those w depression commit these -(systematic errors in thinking about events and people, including the self)
What do cognitive distortions then lead to?
a negative triad of depression in their thoughts: consists of a negative view of the world (e.g., Everybody hates me), self (e.g., I'm worthless), and future (e.g., Things will never get better)
characteristic way of explaining life events, affects his or her risk of depression (negative view) (blaming themselves vs external factors)
a state in which consequences of behavior appear to be random or uncontrolled, leading to feelings of helplessness and a tendency to "give up" and become depressed.
Recommended textbook explanations
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Richard A. Kasschau
Sets found in the same folder
Holm Psychology Exam 4-merp!
Ch. 13: Social Psychology- The Connected Mind- mer…
COMBINATION: PSYCH EXAM 4 TOTAL REVIEW
Sets with similar terms
Holm Psychology Major Concept Chapter 12
***PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 11: Psychological Disorders
PSYCH Chapter 14
Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders Vocabulary - U…
Other sets by this creator
PLSC 2003 Final Exam - Nabors-merp!
PLSC 2003 Final Review-merp!
American National Government 1-merp!
American National Government Exam 1-merp!