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Terms in this set (59)

Secure: these infants use the parent as a secure base. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger. When the parent returns, they actively seek contact, and their crying is reduced immediately.
Avoidant: these infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present. When she leaves, they usually are not distressed, and they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent. During reunion, they avoid or are slow to greet the parent, and when picked up, they often fail to cling.
Ambivalent/Resistant: before separation, these infants seek closeness to the parent and often fail to explore. When the parent leaves, they are usually distressed, and on her return they combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior, struggling when held and sometimes hitting and pushing. Many continue to cry and cling after being picked up and cannot be comforted easily
Disorganized: This pattern reflects the greatest insecurity. At reunion, these infants show confused, contradictory behaviors-- looking away while the parent is holding them or approaching the parent with flat, depressed emotion. Most display a dazed facial expression and a few cry out unexpectedly after having calmed down or display odd, frozen postures.
Strange Situation: takes the baby through 8 short episodes in which brief separations from and reunions with the caregiver are given. Ainsworth reasoned that securely attached infants and toddlers should use the parent as a secure base from which to explore an unfamiliar playroom, and when the parent leaves, a stranger should be less comforting than the parent.
Early availability of a consistent caregiver: the longer the infant is deprived of a consistent caregiver, the more emotional problems, attachment difficulties, and an excessive desire for adult attention, over-friendliness to unfamiliar adults and peers, failure to check back with the parent in anxiety-arousing situations, and few friendships.
Quality of caregiving: sensitive caregiving (responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully. Interactional synchrony separates experiences of secure from insecure babies: the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well-timed, rhythmic, appropriate fashion
Infant Characteristics: temperament, shared and non-shared environment experiences, and birth complications or newborn illness that makes caring more taxing affect attachment and how easily it is established.
Family Circumstances: job loss, failing marriage, financial strain, and other stressors can undermine attachment because they interfere with the sensitivity of parental care. Arrival of a new sibling. Availability of social supports, especially parents with a good relationship who assist each other with caregiving, reduced family stress and predicts greater attachment security
Parents' internal working model: parents bring their own history of attachment experiences from which they construct internal working models that they apply to the bonds they establish with their babies. Parents with autonomous/secure representations are warmer and more sensitive, and more likely to be supportive and encourage learning. Internal working models are reconstructed memories. Our early rearing experiences do not destine us to become sensitive/insensitive parents, but the way we view our childhoods is what is influential