88 terms

Management I - Production

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Terms in this set (...)

Bids: one stop shopping vs. by the item
1. full line supplier provides most foods except bread & dairy
2. purchasing occurs through a specialized company (e.g. meat from a butcher, baked goods from bakery)
contract
purchasing involves a binding agreement between vendor & purchaser
types of contracts (4)
1. A (exclusive): written agreement to make purchases from only 1 purveyor for a certain price or time period
2. B (partially exclusive): written agreement with 1 vendor but if vendor can't supply needs, buyer can go to another
3. C (open): written agreement, buyer contracts with any vendor, decisions based solely on price
4. Dual A: exclusive contracts with 2 vendors instead of just 1
formal bid process
1. bid request - invite potential suppliers to submit prices 30-40d before scheduled due date
2. person awarding bid isn't the one to sign receiving documents/authorize payments
3. open or competitive bids - lowest bidder that meets quality & service standards wins
group purchasing
facilities with similar needs join together to achieve the cost & service benefits of volume purchasing; centralized (all hospitals in a particular chain) or decentralized (healthcare facilities in particular metropolitan area)
prime vendor
provides at least 75% supplies excluding meat & dairy
storage temp for meat/poultry
-32 to 40F (no more than 41 for fridge, 0 for freezer)
maximum storage length for poultry
2 days fridge; 3-4 days deep chill- 6 months frozen (2-3days once thawed)
fruit/vegetable storage temps
1. most: 40-45
2. potatoes, winter squash, onion family: 60-70
3. bananas & tomatoes: room temp
fruit/vegetable ptimal humidity
1. mostly high (85-90%)
2. potatoes, winter squash, onion family: dry
meat grading
voluntary; based on marbling, firmness, color, texture
rank meat grades from highest to lowest quality
1. prime: most tender/juicy/flavorful; fatty, costly
2. choice: widely accepted, preferred
3. select: leanest of 3 common consumer quality grades
4. other grades used for canned products, sausages & pet food (standard, commercial, utility, cutter&canner)
yield grading for meat
1-15; 1 gives the most trimmed lean meat
composition of meat
muscle fiber, connective tissue (collagen, elastin), bones, fat
muscle fiber
digestible lean tissue in meat
connective tissue: collagen
white connective tissue coating muscle fibers, fiber bundles & muscles; increases with exercise & age, less tender; softened or dissolved in hot water to form gelatin
connective tissue: elastin
hard yellow elastic connective tissue unaffected by heat or moisture, increases with age
fat
coats muscle tissue, cushions organs, deposited as marbling within the lean part of the muscle (more marbling = more tender)
key words for lean cuts of meat
loin, round
fruit & vegetable grading: overall
voluntary system that defines color, shape, size, maturity, and number & degree of defects (some standards for flavor & tenderness too)
fruit & vegetable grading: fresh
1. U.S. Fancy
2. U.S. No. 1
3. U.S. No. 2
fruit & vegetable grading: processed
1. U.S. Grade A (Fancy)
2. U.S. Grade B (Choice - fruits; Extra Standard - vegetables)
3. U.S. Grade C (Standard
dispersions
a solution composed of particles throughout another substance, affected by such factors as heat, cold, enzymes, acids, alkali, or physical agitation (stirring)
solutions
homogenous mixtures of different substances, usually including water (higher temps increase solubility)
colloidal dispersions
hold larger size molecules in solution - too big for true solution, too small to totally fall out (gelatin in hot water, protein in milk and egg white, etc.)
emulsions
combinations of two immiscible liquids (oil in water
suspensions
contain particles too large or complex to dissolve or form colloidal dispersions (cornstarch in water)
sol
solid-in-liquid; a colloidal dispersion in the liquid state
gel
liquid-in-solid dispersion (when a sol assumes a rigid form)
foam
gas-in-liquid dispersion (whipped topping)
syneresis
when liquid seems from a gel
homogenization
stabilization of emulsions by finely dividing one substance and dispersing it throughout another
par stock system
establishes quantity needed for each item for menu preparation, allowing for special circumstances; orders placed at fixed intervals over a period of time meant to bring the item back to the predetermined (par) level
minimum/maximum inventory system
determines a minimum (reorder point) & maximum (# units used during the order period + safety level) amount of stock to have on hand; amount ordered is constant but the time of purchase varies
safety level
minimum stock required to be on hand for mini-max inventory
usage rate
amount of product used per a defined period of time (day, month, etc.) for mini-max inventory
lead time
time it takes to receive an item after placing order in mini-max inventory
physical vs. perpetual inventory
actual count of items on shelf at a specific time using a standard recording form VS continuously monitored record of stock on hand with incoming products added to the balance and used products subtracted from the balance
ABC method inventory control
classifies products according to their value:
1. A Class: most expensive, control & security tightest, kept at minimum; 70% total food costs
2. B Class: lesser value, 20% total food costs
3. C Class: lowest dollar value, 10% total food costs
what is produced when baking powder is added to cake batter?
CO2
what are the components of self-rising flour?
AP flour, baking powder, salt
Why is sodium chloride added to eggs?
extends shelf life, assures emulsification of yolks & whites, enhances protein coagulation
how do acids affect the color of vegetables?
1. improves color of red cabbage & beets (blue-red --> bright red)
2. bright green --> olive green
3. red-orange --> pale yellow-orange
4. yellow-white --> bright white
5. low acid foods can cook longer without color changes
6. green veggies: cook uncovered; rec, cook covered
how do alkalis affect the color of vegetables?
1. intensifies color, except blue-reds become blue-green
2. baking soda in cooking water not recommended though because it also reduces nutrition
how does vinegar affect the color of vegetables?
see acids
how do aluminum pans affect the color of vegetables?
can turn anthocyanin (blue-red) to just blue; reacts with the acid in tomatoes to fade the color
what is the purpose of blanching?
1. inactivate enzymes
2. remove air from tissues
3. destroy contaminating microorganisms
4. usually done before canning, freezing, dehydrating
what is the protein content of various flours? (Cake, pastry, self rising, AP, bread)
1. Cake: 7-9%
2. Pastry/Self Rising: 9-10%
3. AP: 10-12%
4. Bread: 12.5-13.5%
why does the protein content of flour matter?
more gluten (protein) creates structure & determines texture --> light & airy with lower protein, dense & chewy with higher protein
what makes a sauce thin or thick?
amount of thickening agent (flour, cornstarch, etc.); per 1C liquid:
1. very thin: 2tsp flour
2. thin: 1T
3. medium: 2T
4. thick-very thick: 3-4T
listeriosis: causes, onset of symptoms, signs/symptoms
1. listeria monocytogenes from unpasteurized dairy, veggies, meat/poultry/seafood, RTE foods (cold cuts, fermented raw meat sausages)
2. 12hr - several days
3. NVD, headache, fever, chills, backache, meningitis, spontaneous abortion, septicemia, encephalitis
clostridium perfringens: causes, onset of symptoms, signs/symptoms
1. meat/meat products, gravy & temp abuse
2. 8-22hr
3. abdominal pain, diarrhea
giardiasis: causes, onset of symptoms, signs/symptoms
1. giardia from swallowing giardia from surfaces that contain infected stool, drinking water/ice where giardia may live (untreated lakes, streams, wells), uncooked contaminated foods, contact w/ infected person, traveling to countries where giardia is common
2. 1-3 weeks
3. diarrhea, gas/flatulence, greasy&floating stool, stomach/abdominal cramps, upset stomach/nausea, dehydration
E. Coli: causes, onset of symptoms, signs/symptoms
1. raw/undercooked red meats, raw/unpasteurized dairy, fresh F&V
2. 12-72hr
3. bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal pain/cramping, N/V, hemolytic uremic syndrome that may cause kidney failure; sometimes, fever
conduction
kinetic energy slowly transmitted from molecule to molecule by a heat source applied to the food product (good=water, fat, metals; poor=air, glass)
convection
air, water or fat currents carry heat to cold based on the principle that heated molecules are less dense and rise, letting the cooler molecules sink down to the heat source; circular flow; more rapid
radiation
energy transferred from source to food by waves, which cannot penetrate below the surface of food; deeper portions of food heated by conduction from outer surface heated parts
infrared vs. microwave radiation
applies a heat source to the side of the food (broilers, toasters, hold lamps) VS water molecules agitated to heat
scoop #6: approximate measure & weight
10T (2/3C), 6oz
scoop #8: approximate measure & weight
8T (1/2C), 4-5oz
scoop #10: approximate measure & weight
6T (3/8C), 3-4oz
scoop #12: approximate measure & weight
5T, 2 1/2-3oz
scoop #16: approximate measure & weight
4T, 2-2 1/4oz
scoop #20: approximate measure & weight
3 1/5T, 1 3/4-2oz
scoop #30: approximate measure & weight
2 1/5T, 1-1 1/2oz
scoop #60: approximate measure & weight
1T, 1/2oz
no. 2 can: net weight/can, vol/can, cans/case
20floz, 2 1/2C, 24
no. 2 1/2 can: net weight/can, vol/can, cans/case
26-30floz, 3 1/2C, 24
no. 10 can: net weight/can, vol/can, cans/case
6-7lb & 5oz, 12-13C, 6
no. 303 can: net weight/can, vol/can, cans/case
16-17floz, 2C, 24 or 36
8oz can: net weight/can, vol/can, cans/case
8oz, 1C, 48-72
pasteurization of milk
extends shelf life of food through pasteurization at very high temperatures for short periods, minimal quality deterioration
homogenization of milk
stabilization of emulsions by finely dividing one substance and dispersing it throughout another (milk fat & milk proteins stay together instead of having the cream separate to the top)
creaming of milk
skimming off the thick, rich cream that settles at the top of milk when milk is left to sit quiet for a period of 12-24 hours
tools that help to cool foods
ice baths, ice wands, storing food in shallow containers, blast chillers
1 step cooling process
cool food from 135 --> 41 or lower F within 6hr
2 step cooling process
rapid cooling:
1. cool item quickly from 135-70F within 2hr (pathogens grow more readily in this range)
2. cool item from 70 --> 41 or lower within 4 additional hours (total cool time still 6hr)
MSDS
material safety data sheet; different sheet for each chemical used on site
information provided by MSDS
manufacturing/generic information, chemicals involved, precautions to take (attire, handling, ventilation, chemicals it can't mix with), what to do if something happens (ingestion/contamination of skin or eyes, fire, spills)
OSHA
occupational safety & health act of 1970; requires employers to ensure the safety of all employees in the work environment
OSHA: inspections
conducted to check compliance under the following conditions:
1. catastrophe or fatality at facility
2. employee complains of a hazard to safety or health
3. establishment is chosen as random check
4. established as a target industry (e.g. bakeries have dangerous equipment)
OSHA: directives
1. report all work related accidents and illnesses and maintain records for 5 years
2. advise employees of their rights under OSHA
3. hazard communication standard (HCS): requires plan to communicate chemical hazards to employees; MSDS must be available on all chemicals
4. document the safety self-inspection program in writing
OSHA 300 Log
form that managers must complete for any accident or fatality within a year's time that occurs on site. For operations with >10 employees.
specification
a detailed description of a product and should always include:
1. Name of the product
2. Federal grade or brand
3. Unit on which price was quoted
4. Name and size of container (sieve size, six #10 cans),
5. Count per container or approximate number per pound
types of specifications
1. technical: quality by impartial test results (graded food items)
2. approved brand: quality by brand name or label (Oreo sandwich cookies)
3. performance: quality by functional criteria (pH level of detergents)
temperature danger zone
41-135F
safe temperature for cooking ground beef
155F, 15 sec
dishwasher cycle temps: prewash, wash, final rinse
1. 110-140F
2. 140-160F
3. 165-180F