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300 terms

Psychology Test 2 Chapter 3,4,5

STUDY
PLAY
Nicotine is a ________.
A) psychogenic drug
B) stimulant
C) narcotic
D) depressant
B) stimulant
What is the largest single preventable cause of premature death in the United States?
A) crack cocaine abuse
B) cigarette smoking
C) caffeine intoxication
D) opiate exhilaration
B) cigarette smoking
REM madness refers to the belief that ________.
A) REM sleep causes paranoia
B) listening to more than 8 hours of R.E.M will cause madness
C) without REM sleep one will go mad
D) Too much REM sleep will cause one to go mad
C) without REM sleep one will go mad
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Nightmares, but not night terrors, suggest some psychological problems.
B) Both nightmares and night terrors suggest psychological problems.
C) Night terrors, but not nightmares, suggest some psychological problems.
D) Night terrors are a rare disorder.
D) Night terrors are a rare disorder
Which of the following neurotransmitters are associated with alcohol?
A) endorphins
B) acetylcholine
C) adrenalin
D) GABA
D) GABA
Heroin addiction has been treated with ________.
A) methadone
B) amphetamines
C) LSD
D) morphine
A) methadone
Narcolepsy occurs when ________.
A) NREM sleep intrudes into wakefulness
B) inadequate sleep occurs over a period of weeks
C) REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness
D) inadequate levels of stage 4 sleep cause neurological damage
C) REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness
You see an advertisement for a method of learning a foreign language that seems simple-just put on a tape and fall asleep. The accompanying description cites proof that people can learn while asleep. Being a good psychological detective, what question would you ask about the offered proof?
A) Did the researchers use only long sleepers who would spend more time with the tapes?
B) What did the EEG indicate about the participants' level of sleep?
C) Did the individuals actually dream about the foreign language?
D) Were study breaks included in the tape to provide greater comprehension of the material?
B) What did the EEG indicate about the participants' level of sleep?
Short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during stage 2 sleep are called ________.
A) delta waves
B) sleep spindles
C) beta waves
D) paradoxical sleep waves
B) sleep spindles
Circadian rhythms are controlled by the ________.
A) pineal gland
B) thalamus
C) suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
D) hippocampus
C) suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
One of the main semantic problems with using sleepwalking as a defense for murder is ________.
A) most murderers do not sleep well
B) sleepwalkers really don't walk
C) true sleepwalking does not really exist
D) the correct term for this type of behavior is REM behavior disorder
D) the correct term for this type of behavior is REM behavior disorder
What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis?
A) stream of consciousness
B) daydreaming
C) altered state of consciousness
D) meditative absorption
C) altered state of consciousness
Interpretation of the ________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the ________ content.
A) manifest; latent
B) metaphorical; denotative
C) manifest; sublimated
D) latent; manifest
A) manifest; latent
Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called ________.
A) psychogenics
B) stimulants
C) depressants
D) narcotics
B) stimulants
Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming,
reflecting, and concentrating, is called ________.
A) creativity
B) self-awareness
C) consciousness
D) intelligence
C) consciousness
To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get out of bed if you cannot sleep. What sleep disorder have you been experiencing?
A) narcolepsy
B) enuresis
C) insomnia
D) REM sleep behavior disorder
C) insomnia
Which of the following statements is true concerning cocaine use in the United States?
A) One of the powerful addictive ingredients in cocaine is heroin.
B) Cocaine was used by early Greek philosophers.
C) At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola.
D) During the Civil War, many Confederate soldiers bought cocaine from Union soldiers.
C) At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola
All of the following result from sleep deprivation EXCEPT ________.
A) cognitive impairment
B) droopy eyelids
C) irritability
D) hyperalertness
D) hyperalertness
Who among the following people might be a likely candidate for hypnosis?
A) Carrie, a 29-year-old woman who is a copy editor for a newspaper and unwilling to allow anyone to hypnotize her
B) Dan, a 40-year-old man who fantasizes frequently and owns a waterbed store
C) Anthony, a hyperactive 9-year-old boy
D) Glenn, a 32-year-old man who opposes all suggestions directed at him
B) Dan, a 40-year-old man who fantasizes frequently and owns a water bedstore
According to this theory, sleep is necessary for growth and repair of the body.
A) psychoanalytic theory
B) restorative theory
C) adaptive theory
D) dream theory
B) restorative theory
This early researcher did a study that seemed to suggest that people deprived of REM sleep would become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill, from lack of this one stage of sleep.
A) Dement
B) James
C) Freud
D) Jung
A) Dement
Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can do?
A) Hypnosis can improve intelligence.
B) Hypnosis can give a person superhuman strength.
C) Hypnosis can improve memory.
D) Hypnosis can create amnesia.
D) Hypnosis can create amnesia
Mary is having insomnia. Which piece of advice would you give to help her deal with it?
A) Don't do anything but sleep in your bed.
B) Study in bed and then go immediately to sleep.
C) Go to bed every night at the same time.
D) Take sleeping pills.
A) Don't do anything but sleep in your bed.
Which of the following pairs belong together?
A) LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol
B) MDMA; acetylcholine
C) marijuana; psilocybin
D) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol
D) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol
Interpretation of the ________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the ________ content.
A) manifest; sublimated
B) manifest; latent
C) latent; manifest
D) metaphorical; denotative
B) maifest; latent
If your physician says you need a treatment called CPAP, you are suffering from ________.
A) sleep apnea
B) insomnia
C) narcolepsy
D) sleep terrors
A) sleep apnea
Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from ________.
A) sleep apnea
B) narcolepsy
C) parasomnia
D) REM rebound
B) narcolepsy
A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a(n) ________ cycle.
A) diurnal
B) ultradian
C) infradian
D) circadian
D) ultradian
Heroin addiction has been treated with ________.
A) LSD
B) morphine
C) amphetamines
D) methadone
D) methadone
Sleep research supports three of the following helpful hints. Which statement is NOT accurate?
A) In cases of insomnia, don't associate your bedroom with wakefulness.
B) Sleeping pills help cure insomnia.
C) It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night.
D) Don't try too hard to get to sleep.
B) Sleeping pills help cure insomnia.
Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing ________.
A) overdrawal
B) withdrawal
C) drug detoxification
D) drug tolerance
D) drug tolerance
Sleep spindles appear during ________ sleep.
A) stage 4
B) stage 1
C) stage 2
D) REM
C) stage 2
Caffeine is a ________.
A) narcotic
B) psychogenic drug
C) stimulant
D) depressant
C) stimulant
The stage of sleep in which delta waves begin to appear is ________ sleep.
A) stage 1
B) stage 2
C) stage 4
D) stage 3
D) stage 3
________ is a disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke,
gasp, and momentarily awaken.
A) Non-REM sleep
B) Narcolepsy
C) Insomnia
D) Sleep apnea
D) Sleep apnea
According to Sigmund Freud, the important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the ________.
A) subliminal content
B) deep content
C) latent content
D) manifest content
C) latent content
Sleep research supports three "helpful hints" to avoid insomnia. Which of the following statements is NOT a helpful hint?
A) Try to nap as much as possible.
B) Don't try too hard to get to sleep.
C) It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night.
D) In cases of insomnia, don't associate your bedroom with wakefulness.
A) Try to nap as much as possible
What is the largest single preventable cause of premature death in the United States?
A) crack cocaine abuse
B) caffeine intoxication
C) opiate exhilaration
D) cigarette smoking
D) cigarette smoking
This early researcher did a study that seemed to suggest that people deprived of REM sleep would become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill, from lack of this one stage of sleep.
A) James
B) Freud
C) Dement
D) Jung
C) Dement
The best adjectives associated with the activation-synthesis hypothesis are ________.
A) meaningful, problem oriented, and historical
B) unconscious, symbolic, and meaningful
C) bizarre, meaningless, and random
D) intelligent, free, and neurotic
C) bizarre, meaningless, and random
People in stage 4 sleep ________.
A) dream all the time
B) hallucinate
C) are hard to wake up
D) are easy to wake up
C) are hard to wake up
The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to ________.
A) time of day
B) education
C) state of suggestibility
D) the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing
C) state of suggestibility
Judith is startled when her 6-year-old daughter, Laura, sleepwalks into the family room. It is most likely that Laura is experiencing the ________ stage of the sleep cycle.
A) REM
B) third
C) first
D) fourth
D) first
You meet a psychologist who says she views hypnosis from the social-cognitive perspective. Which of the following is the best description of what her view of hypnosis would be?A) People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness.
B) There is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness.
C) People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.
D) There is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.
A) People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness
If the EEG record reveals evidence of sleep spindles, you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is in which stage of sleep?
A) stage 1
B) REM
C) stage 4
D) stage 2
D) stage 2
Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing ________.
A) withdrawal
B) drug tolerance
C) drug detoxification
D) overdrawal
B) drug tolerance
According to research on sleep deprivation, a moderate amount of sleep loss ________.
A) is still a serious problem
B) is not a problem at all
C) does not affect people older than age 50
D) only is a problem for women, not men
A) is still a serious problem
Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called ________.
A) illegal drugs
B) legal drugs
C) psychoactive drugs
D) hallucinogens
C) psychoactive drugs
The activation-information-mode model suggests ________.
A) dreams have more latent content than once thought
B) the activation-synthesis hypothesis is all wrong
C) nothing influences dreams
D) events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams
D) events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams
A circadian cycle is about ________ hours long.
A) 24
B) 1.5
C) 6
D) 12
D) 12
After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?
A) drug intoxication
B) tolerance
C) physical dependence
D) withdrawal
D) withdrawal
Which of the following people will be helped by hypnosis?
A) Celia, who wants a better memory.
B) Carlos, who wants to stop thinking about his foot pain.
C) Kiesha, who wants to remember what happened to her when she was 4 years old.
D) Jeff, who would like to run faster.
B) Carlos, who wants to stop thinking about his foot pain
Each of the following is a sleep disorder EXCEPT ________.
A) night terrors
B) REM rebound
C) insomnia
D) narcolepsy
B) REM rebound
Upon just waking up, you report a vivid visual event. What term do psychologists use for such phenomena?
A) hypnopompic image
B) hypnotic illusion
C) hypnagogic hallucination
D) positive hallucination
A) hypnopompic image
Freud's psychoanalytic theory of dreaming states that ________.
A) there is no purpose to dreaming; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals
B) dreaming is a by-product of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections
C) the purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems
D) the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts
D) the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts
Which of the following individuals is most likely to sleepwalk?
A) a 24-year-old adult
B) a 44-year-old adult
C) a 10-year-old child
D) a 74-year-old adult
C) a 10-year-old child
According to this theory, sleep is a product of evolution.
A) dream theory
B) adaptive theory
C) psychoanalytic theory
D) restorative theory
B) adaptive theory
REM sleep refers to ________.
A) dreamless sleep
B) sleep periods in which sleepwalking is likely
C) sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly
D) sleep induced by sleeping pills
C) sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly
Which of the following is CORRECT concerning REM deprivation?
A) REM deprivation can lead to visual impairments.
B) REM deprivation results in long-term mental illness.
C) REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep.
D) REM deprivation only occurs among the elderly.
C) REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep
The activation-synthesis hypothesis resulted from using ________.
A) EEGs on college students while they were sleeping
B) PET scans
C) drugs while sleeping
D) a combination of laser technology and X-ray
B) PET scans
Morphine, heroin, and methadone ________.
A) are often used to treat ADHD
B) are derived from opium
C) increase the action of the central nervous system
D) are stimulants
B) are derived from opium
Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
A) heroin
B) alcohol
C) cocaine
D) marijuana
B) alcohol
Tommy desperately wants to quit smoking. Which method has been shown to be the most effective one Tommy can use?
A) alcohol replacement method
B) cold turkey method
C) nicotine gum method
D) delayed smoking method
D) delayed smoking method
LSD is similar to which of the following drugs?
A) PCP
B) MDMA
C) CHT
D) methadone
A) PCP
Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by ________.
A) nodding off without warning in the middle of the day
B) difficulty breathing while asleep
C) experiencing temporary paralysis immediately after waking up from sleep
D) difficulty falling or remaining asleep
B) difficulty breathing while asleep
REM behavior disorder most commonly occurs ________.
A) in men over 60
B) in children
C) among the poor
D) in women under 60
A) in men over 60
Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as
________.
A) relaxed wakefulness
B) altered states of consciousness
C) unconscious states
D) hyperconsciousness
B) altered states of consciouusness
Approximately ________ percent of children experience at least one episode of sleepwalking before adolescence.
A) 80
B) 40
C) 60
D) 20
D) 20
Which of the following pairs belong together?
A) MDMA; acetylcholine
B) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol
C) LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol
D) marijuana; psilocybin
B) marijuana; tetrahdrocannabinol
All of the following are signs of physical dependence related to cocaine EXCEPT ________.
A) obsessing about where to buy it
B) loss of control
C) disregard for consequences of use
D) compulsivity
A) obsessing about where to buy it
You are listening to a person who keeps telling you to relax, attempting to create a situation in which you are likely to follow suggestions. What treatment are you undergoing?
A) autosuggestion
B) reprogramming
C) hypnosis
D) psychotherapy
C) hypnosis
The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to ________.
A) state of suggestibility
B) the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing
C) education
D) time of day
A) state of suggestibilty
Which of the following is correct concerning recent theories of dreams?
A) Dreams may cause one to murder.
B) There are thousands of people who do not dream.
C) Activation-information-mode (AIM) model suggests we may use suppressed memories to influence dreams.
D) There is a new theory of dreams completely focused on "Elvis."
C) Activation-information-mode (AIM) model suggest we may use suppressed memories to influence dreams
What term do psychologists use to designate our personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts?
A) cognition
B) consciousness
C) conscience
D) thinking
B) consciousness
The stage of sleep marked by the production of very slow delta waves is ________ sleep.
A) stage 1
B) stage 2
C) stage 4
D) stage 3
C) stage 4
Sigmund Freud would agree with all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) Freud never really believed that dreams represented the unconscious
B) early memories could be found in dreams
C) the key to analyzing a dream will be found in the manifest content
D) dreams represent the unconscious
A) Freud never really believed that dreams represented the unconscious
What used to be called "the gentle tyrant"?
A) drugs
B) sleep
C) dreams
D) meditation
B) sleep
Which of the following statements might help you determine if an individual has narcolepsy?
A) "I sometimes fall into a deep sleep in the middle of a conversation."
B) "I have difficulty getting to sleep."
C) "When I get up in the morning, I have the feeling that I had really bad nightmares."
D) "I don't have an adverse reaction to sleeping pills."
A) "I sometimes fall into a deep sleep in the middle of a conversation."
Surgery to which organ in the body may relieve symptoms of apnea?
A) auditory canal
B) olfactory membrane
C) uvula
D) septum
C) uvula
Which of these individuals has the highest risk for having sleep apnea?
A) John, 62 years old, who is overweight
B) Alicia, 42 years old, who is suffering from anorexia
C) Angela, 21 years old, who is depressed
D) Juan, 8 years old, who is experiencing episodes of enuresis
A) John, 62 years old, who is overweight
Melatonin is a ________.
A) depressant
B) hormone
C) sleeping pill
D) stimulant
B) hormone
How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis explain dreaming
A) the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem
B) biological attempts to make recent memories more permanent
C) the surfacing of repressed sexual urges
D) the use of elaborate symbolism to disguise "unthinkable" topics
A) the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem
CPAP stands for ________.
A) correctable pointed airflow problem
B) cancer prevention application procedure
C) continuous positive airway pressure
D) controlled pulmonary air pump
C) continuous positive airway pressure
Jim is 56 years old and slightly overweight. His wife reports that he snores loudly. What sleep disorder seems to fit Jim's symptoms?
A) sleep terror
B) REM sleep behavior
C) sleep apnea
D) narcolepsy
C) sleep apnea
Freud believed that dreams ________.
A) stem from unconscious conflicts, memories, and desires
B) are ways to solve problems
C) are reflections of consciousness
D) are sexual perversions
A) stem from unconscious conflicts, memories, and desires
Benzedrine, methedrine, and dexedrine are all ________.
A) depressants
B) amphetamines
C) illegal
D) narcotics
B) smphetamines
The state we are in when we are awake and reasonably alert is called ________.
A) intelligence
B) waking consciousness
C) self-awareness
D) altered state of consciousness
B) waking consciousness
Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis suggests that ________.
A) hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an "immediate" part and a "hidden observer" part
B) people merely are playing a role
C) hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body
D) hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain
B) people merely are playing a role
When amphetamines are abused, the resulting effects may include ________.
A) nervousness, loss of appetite, high blood pressure, and vomiting
B) increased appetite, sleepiness, and euphoria
C) restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, and high blood pressure
D) heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired circulation, and erectile problems in men
A) nervousness, loss of appetite, high blood pressure, and vomiting
A student nurse looks at a patient's chart and does not understand the meaning of serious sleep apnea, so she asks the head nurse for assistance. How might the head nurse describe this condition?
A) The patient appears to awaken throughout the night and start walking, but he will not respond to commands.
B) The patient cannot sleep unless he has several pillows he uses to deaden sounds that might awaken him.
C) The patient is mentally ill and tends to try to suffocate himself at times.
D) The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep.
D) The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep.
In comparing the dreams of men and women, researchers have found that generally ________.
A) Men's dreams more often involve cars, the outdoors, aggression, and sex
B) women dream more often about strangers than men do
C) there is no difference between them
D) men dream more about home and family than women do
A) Men's dreams more often involve cars, the outdoors, aggression, and sex
If you have been waking up too early for several weeks, you are probably suffering from ________.
A) reverse insomnia
B) parasomnia
C) hypersomnia
D) insomnia
D) insomnia
The hormone melatonin reaches peak levels in the body during the ________.
A) afternoon
B) early evening
C) night
D) morning
C) night
The idea of a "hidden observer" part of the mind was suggested by ________.
A) Hilgard
B) Freud
C) Watson
D) Kirsch
A) Hilgard
Mescaline comes from ________.
A) a poppy plant
B) a virus
C) weeds
D) cactus buttons
D) cactus buttons
Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and
suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from ________.
A) narcolepsy
B) REM rebound
C) sleep apnea
D) parasomnia
A) narcolepsy
Which of the following statements is correct?
A) A famous attorney reported that he tried a murder case while he was sleepwalking.
B) Sleepwalking in prisons is a common occurrence.
C) There have been cases in which sleepwalking was a successful murder defense.
D) Sleepwalking has never been used successfully as a murder defense.
C) There have been cases in which sleepwalking was a successful murder defense
Our sleep-wake cycle follows a(n) ________ rhythm.
A) ultradian
B) infradian
C) diurnal
D) circadian
D) circadian
Which of the following indicators reflects the possibility of physical dependence?
A) getting caught with a drug
B) abusing a drug
C) obsessing about a drug
D) drug tolerance
D) drug tolerance
A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called ________.
A) narcolepsy
B) cataplexy
C) insomnia
D) sleep apnea
D) sleep apnea
Human beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example of ________.
A) conditioned emotional response
B) vicarious conditioning
C) biological preparedness
D) classical conditioning
C) biological preparedness
The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of ________ to conditioning theory.
A) habituation
B) expectancy
C) generalization
D) memory loss
B) expectancy
What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery?
A) After his fear of loud noises was extinguished, the fear could come back.
B) His fear of rats would disappear if he saw a rat without hearing a loud noise.
C) His fear of loud noises would disappear if he heard a loud noise without a rat present.
D) Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.
D) Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.
A mother tells a young child that when her father comes home, he will spank her because she was bad. One negative consequence of this punishment is that ________.
A) the child will lie to her father and say she never was bad
B) the child will experience fear and anxiety, which are emotions that do not promote learning.
C) the child will hide from her father and try to avoid him
D) All of these negative consequences may occur as they are known consequences of punishment
D) All of these negative consequences may occur as they are known consequences of punishment
When Pavlov placed meat powder or other food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The salivation was a(n) ________.
A) unconditioned response
B) conditioned response
C) conditioned stimulus
D) unconditioned stimulus
A) unconditioned response
Neurofeedback, the newer version of biofeedback, involves trying to change ________.
A) blood pressure
B) heart rate
C) body temperature
D) brain wave activity
D) brain wave activity
Kelsey just told her family a really funny joke that she made up herself. In order to use a primary reinforcer to encourage her in her joke-telling, Kelsey's dad might ________.
A) offer her a piece of candy
B) applaud her appropriate behavior
C) offer her money
D) offer her praise for a job well done
A) offer her a piece of candy
In order to get her 2nd grade students to memorize the poem written on the chalkboard, Mrs. Thyberg gives the students stickers for each poem they can recite from memory. After earning 5 stickers, a student gets to pick a prize out of the goody box. Mrs. Thyberg is using (a) ________ to modify the children's behaviors.
A) negative reinforcement
B) applied behavior analysis
C) token economy
D) classical conditioning.
C) token economy
Little Albert's acquired fear of a white rat was a classic example of a(n) ________ response.
A) classical counterconditioned
B) conditioned emotional
C) negatively reinforced
D) positively reinforced
B) conditioned emotional
Which is the most important characteristic of a food that is linked to a conditioned taste aversion for birds?
A) smell
B) touch
C) taste
D) vision
D) vision
In their 1961 paper on instinctive drift, the Brelands determined that three assumptions most Skinnerian behaviorists believed in were not actually true. Which is one of the assumptions that was NOT true?
A) Differences between species of animals are insignificant.
B) All responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus.
C) The animal comes to the laboratory a tabula rasa, or "blank slate,"and can be taught anything with the right conditioning.
D) All of these were not true.
D) All of these were not tru
Which of the following statements is true about behavior modification?
A) It is useful only for teaching autistic children.
B) It involves the process of shaping.
C) It is different from behavior modification.
D) It cannot be used with animals.
B) it involves the process of shaping
What was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in the case of Little Albert?
A) a small enclosed space
B) a high chair
C) a loud noise
D) a rat
C) a loud noise
The person MOST closely associated with the Law of Effect is ________.
A) Skinner
B) Pavlov
C) Thorndike
D) Watson
C) Thorndike
The partial reinforcement effect refers to the fact that a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses ________.
A) will be more variable in its resistance to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
B) will be more resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
C) will be less resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
D) will be totally resistant to extinction unlike a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
B) will be more resistnat to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct respone)
A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of ________.
A) learned helplessness
B) aversive conditioning
C) avoidance learning
D) vicarious learning
A) learned helpessness
In Bandura's study of observational learning, the abbreviation AMIM stands for ________.
A) alertness, motivation, intent, monetary reward
B) achievement, motivation, intellectual capacity, memory
C) achievement, momentum, initiative, memory
D) attention, memory, imitation, motivation
D) attention, memory, imitation, motivation
College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only halfhearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ________.
A) contingency blocking
B) learned helplessness
C) latent learning
D) response generalization
B) learned helplessness
Cheryl is trying to teach her son to do the laundry by watching her. According to observational learning theory, to be effective what must occur?
A) Her son must be able to complete other tasks while watching her.
B) Cheryl must show her son how to do the laundry while she is making dinner.
C) Her son must always model the behavior immediately.
D) Her son must be motivated to learn how to do the laundry.
D) Her son must be motivated to learn how to do the laundry.
Why does fear caused by punishment make the punishment ineffective in changing behavior?
A) Fear produces resentment that makes the child rebellious and disobedient.
B) Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment.
C) Fear leads the child to forget the behavior that was punished.
D) None of these.
B) Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment.
When the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS (food, in this case), the CR will "die out"in a process called ________.
A) extinction
B) habituation
C) generalization fading
D) CR fading
A) extinction
Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
A) Learning involves experiences.
B) Learning involves changes in behavior.
C) Learning is relatively permanent.
D) Learning is another word for "maturation."
D) Learning is another word for "maturation".
A person is connected to an electroencephalograph, a machine that records the brain's electrical activity. The person is reinforced when his or her pattern of brain waves changes in order to treat a disorder such as epilepsy. This technique is best called ________.
A) biofeedback
B) neurofeedback
C) behavior modification
D) operant conditioning
B) neurofeedback
Rescorla's modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ________.
A) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
B) reinforcement must occur by providing a pleasant event
C) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and UCS
D) the CS substitutes for the UCS
A) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children's TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. What psychological process are the representatives probably considering as the reason that TV influences school violence?
A) observational learning
B) insight learning
C) operant conditioning
D) classical conditioning
A) observational learning
A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn not to eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the principle of ________ to accomplish this.
A) instrumental conditioning
B) observational learning
C) latent learning
D) conditioned taste aversions
D) conditioned taste aversions
A young boy is watching TV. In one show he sees a bully steal a lunch from another child. The bully then enjoys eating the other child's lunch. Because this boy feels that his mother makes him a rather skimpy lunch and he is always hungry at school, he starts stealing other kids' lunches at school. According to Bandura's theory of observational learning, his hunger at lunchtime most influenced which factor?
A) memory
B) imitation
C) attention
D) motivation
D) motivation
A school issues tokens to the children for good behavior. This issue of a token is an example of ________.
A) primary reinforcement
B) classical conditioning
C) instinctive drift
D) behavior modification
D) behavior modification
Unlike mammals, birds seem to develop conditioned aversions to food based on which sense?
A) vision
B) smell
C) taste
D) touch
A) vision
Changes controlled by a genetic blueprint, such as an increase in height or the size of the brain, are examples of ________.
A) learning
B) habituation
C) growth cycles
D) maturation
D) learning
What kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parents give her $10 every time she accumulates six As on her tests?
A) continuous reinforcement
B) gradual reinforcement
C) partial reinforcement
D) sporadic reinforcement
C) partial reinforcement
Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called ________.
A) the observational delay effect
B) the delayed learning paradigm
C) the learning/performance distinction
D) the innate performance preference
C) the learning/performance distinction
Who was one of the first researchers to explore and outline the laws of voluntary responses?
A) Thorndike
B) Pavlov
C) Watson
D) Skinner
A) Thorndike
The abbreviation CS stands for ________.
A) conditional situation
B) conditioned stimulus
C) correlated stimulus
D) conventional structure
B) conditioned stimulus
What was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in the case of Little Albert?
A) a high chair
B) a rat
C) a loud noise
D) a small enclosed space
C) a loud noise
Your parakeet eats some cooked spaghetti. Later, the parakeet gets ill. What would the research on biological preparedness predict?
A) The parakeet will eat spaghetti again.
B) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it smells similar to spaghetti.
C) The parakeet will probably not eat linguini noodles because they are long and thin and look similar to spaghetti.
D) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it tastes similar to spaghetti.
C) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it tastes similar to spaghetti.
Changes controlled by a genetic blueprint, such as an increase in height or the size of the brain, are examples of ________.
A) growth cycles
B) learning
C) habituation
D) maturation
D) maturation
Which learning theorist is responsible for the discovery of conditioned taste aversions?
A) Skinner
B) Seligman
C) Watson
D) Garcia
D) Watson
Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called ________.
A) the innate performance preference
B) the learning/performance distinction
C) the delayed learning paradigm
D) the observational delay effect
B) the learning/performance distinction
The concept of latent learning was developed by ________.
A) Tolman
B) Thorndike
C) Watson
D) Skinner
A) Tolman
A behavioral psychologist tries to train a bird to climb a tree to get a reward of a piece of fruit. At first, the bird learns how to climb the tree with its legs and beak. After a while, it starts flapping its wings and hopping around before it starts to climb. Eventually, the bird flies up to the piece of fruit, even though that prevents it from getting the fruit. According to the Brelands' analysis of biological constraints, the bird is demonstrating ________.
A) the power of negative reinforcement
B) that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it
C) the Law of Effect
D) response generalization
B) that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it
Molly is sometimes loud and disruptive in class, and her teacher thinks she acts this way when she wants attention. The teacher worries that yelling at Molly might serve as a positive reinforcer for her bad behavior because it is giving Molly the attention she wants. One behavior modification that might help with this child is ________.
A) use of classical conditioning by shocking the child so that she stops speaking out
B) use of time-outs to remove the positive reinforcement that even a scolding gives the child
C) use of instinctive drift therapy
D) use of partial reinforcement
B) use of time-outs to remove the positive reinforcement that even a scolding gives the child
Dad is watching a home improvement show about how to install a new sink. He really wants to do it and watches the show intently. He knows that his wife will reward him when he is done. However, when he tests the new sink, water spurts everywhere. Taking the new sink apart, he finds that he has left out the crucial washers in the faucet assembly even though this was emphasized in the TV show. What part of Bandura's theory of the necessary components of observational learning is most likely the reason for this disaster?
A) attention
B) imitation
C) motivation
D) memory
D) memory
Which of the following events most intrigued Pavlov and led to his discoveries?
A) The dogs seemed to enjoy the food.
B) The assistant salivated along with the dogs when the dogs started to eat.
C) The dogs started to salivate when they saw Pavlov's assistant and before they got the food.
D) The dogs stopped salivating after seeing the assistant so many times.
C) The dogs started to salivate when they saw Pavlov's assistant and before they got the food.
________ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ________ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
A) A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student
B) Water; food
C) A gold star; cupcake
D) A kiss; money
A) A cupcake; a cerificate of achievement given to a student
Rescorla's modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ________.
A) reinforcement must occur by providing a pleasant event
B) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
C) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and UCS
D) the CS substitutes for the UCS
B) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
An example of a discriminative stimulus might be a ________.
A) the white rat in Watson's Little Albert study of producing phobias
B) stop sign
C) the stimulus that acts as a UCS in classical conditioning
D) none of these
B) stop sign
Karawynn Long attempted to toilet train her cat. The principle of learning that was in operation was ________.
A) classical conditioning
B) shaping
C) observational learning
D) AMIM
B) shaping
Which of the following processes occur in both operant conditioning and classical conditioning?
A) extinction
B) generalization
C) spontaneous recovery
D) all of these
D) all of these
Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called ________.
A) latent learning
B) vicarious learning
C) insight
D) innate learning
A) latent learning
What could John Watson have done to eliminate Little Albert's conditioned fear?
A) Show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following.
B) Let Albert touch a Santa Claus beard repeatedly.
C) Show Albert a toy dog instead of a live rat.
D) Have Albert hear a loud noise many times without a rat present.
A) Show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following.
You need to remove a broken light bulb from a lamp. Without a pair of gloves, you are likely to cut yourself on the jagged glass. Suddenly, it occurs to you that you can use a cut potato to remove the light bulb from the socket. You have just demonstrated ________.
A) generalization
B) latent learning
C) discrimination
D) insight learning
D) insight learning
"If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated."This is a statement of ________.
A) Rescorla's cognitive perspective
B) Garcia's conditional emotional response
C) the law of positive reinforcement
D) Thorndike's Law of Effect
D) Thorndike's Law of Effect
Mark and Kathy take their 2-year-old son to the supermarket every Saturday. Each week, the same sequence of events unfolds: Their son screams, demanding that they buy him treats. Although they refuse to give in to his demands, he continues to scream. Finally, either Mark or Kathy gets in their son's face and yells at the top of their lungs "Shut up!" He stops screaming instantly. What operant conditioning concepts are illustrated in this story?A) The parents are in a very dysfunctional marriage; their child's screaming is his way of trying to get his parents to remain married.
B) Their son probably learned how to scream by observing his parents at home, and now he is reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.
C) The parents are using negative reinforcement to increase their son's screaming.
D) The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.
D) The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screamin
Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an) ________.
A) conditioned stimulus
B) unconditioned response
C) unconditioned stimulus
D) conditioned response
C) unconditioned stimulus
Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov's analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as ________.
A) a conditioned response
B) an unconditioned response
C) a voluntary response
D) a digestive reflux
B) an unconditioned response
Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning?
A) Continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement lead to behaviors that persist for equally long periods of time.
B) Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.
C) Continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through partial or intermittent reinforcement.
D) Neither partial nor continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist for long periods of time.
B) Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.
Michael grows up in a home where his father is generally unloving toward his mother. He observes his father yell and degrade his mother, and he notices that his mother never resists this treatment. Based on the work of Bandura, what might we predict about Michael's own relationships when he is older?
A) Michael will probably treat women very well, as he rebels against the behaviors he saw in his father.
B) Michael will probably have no relationships with women, as his father has taught him that relationships are not worth having.
C) Michael will always be very distant from his father, as he has learned that his father does not care about anyone but himself.
D) Michael may treat women with discourtesy and disrespect, as he repeats the behavior he saw in his father.
D) Michael may treat women with discourtesy and disrespect, as he repeats the behavior he saw in his father.
A girl learns that whenever her brother shares his cookie with her, her mother gives him a piece of candy. The girl starts sharing her treats with her friends when they come over in the hopes of getting a similar reward. The girl's learning to share is an example of ________.
A) contingency theory
B) operant conditioning
C) observational learning
D) classical conditioning
C) observational learning
Conditioned taste aversions are an example of something called ________.
A) inherited conditioned dispositions
B) biological preparedness
C) long-term spontaneous recovery
D) single repetition conditioning
B) biological preparedness
Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior?
A) a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher's approval for her behavior
B) a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented
C) a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior
D) a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior
B) a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented
When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response, it is known as ________.
A) punishment by removal
B) punishing reinforcement
C) negative reinforcement
D) punishment by application
A) punishment by removal
In an experiment, two groups of dogs are given shocks to their feet. One group is able to escape the shocks by jumping over a barrier. The second group is harnessed and cannot escape. After several trials, both groups are put in situations where they CAN escape. The first group escapes the shocks but the second group just sits and whines, refusing to attempt to escape. The response of the second group is due to ________.
A) contingency blocking
B) latent learning
C) learned helplessness
D) response generalization
C) learned helplessness
The first time José sees a cat, his mother tells him, "That's a cat. Can you say cat?"He repeats the word gleefully, and his mother praises him. The next day, he is watching a cartoon and sees a tiger on the television. He points at the tiger and says, "Cat!"This is an example of ________.
A) generalization
B) categorization
C) discrimination
D) spreading activation
A) generalization
Seligman expanded his theory of learned helplessness to explain ________.
A) depression
B) schizophrenia
C) autism
D) ADHD
A) depression
As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat, she started to cry. This is an example of ________.
A) habituation
B) classical conditioning
C) instrumental learning
D) observational learning
B) classical condititioning
Shaquin finished his term paper and handed it in. As he walked out of the classroom, he realized that there were a few more things he should have included in the paper. Shaquin's problem is the ________ component of memory.
A) storage
B) retention
C) encoding
D) retrieval
D) retreival
Craik and Lockhart's model of memory states that how long a memory will be remembered depends on ________.
A) the amount of extinction that the memory has suffered
B) the place in the brain where the memory is stored
C) the depth of processing associated with learning the materials
D) the type of memory it is stored in
C) the depth of processing associated with learning the materials
In the parallel distributed processing model of memory, ________.
A) information is stored simultaneously in unconnected regions of the brain
B) information is associated in sets of classically conditioned neurons across the neocortex
C) None of these are correct.
D) information is simultaneously stored in a network that stretches across the brain
D) information is simultaneously stored in a network that stretches across the brain
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. This is an example of the ________.
A) TOT effect
B) encoding specificity effect
C) serial position effect
D) reintegrative effect
C) serial position effect
The portion of memory that is more or less permanent is called ________.
A) working memory
B) primary memory
C) eidetic memory
D) long-term memory
D) long-term memory
Rochelle remembered getting "B's"in her English lit classes in college. But years later when she applied for a job and took out her transcript, she was shocked to find that she had actually gotten "C—"grades. She then started telling everyone she remembers being a pretty poor student. Her erratic memory of her mediocre performance is most likely due to ________.
A) her poor memory
B) hindsight bias
C) eidetic imagery
D) consolidation
B) hindsight bias
Which type of long-term memory is most resistant to loss with Alzheimer's disease?
A) procedural
B) episodic
C) semantic
D) none of these
A) procedural
________ appears to be responsible for the storage of new long-term memories. If it is removed, the ability to store anything new is completely lost.
A) The amygdala
B) The cerebellum
C) The prefrontal and temporal lobes of the cortex
D) The hippocampus
D) The hippocampus
Studies have found that the best way to overcome the tip-of-the-tongue effect is to ________.
A) forget about it and let the item just come to you
B) take a nap
C) try even harder to remember the items
D) None of these will work.
D) None of these will work.
The three parts of the information-processing model of memory are ________.
A) CS, UCS, UR, and CR
B) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
C) encoding, storage, and retrieval
D) shallow, medium, and deep processing
B) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
In the levels-of-processing model of memory, information that gets processed at a ________ level (such as accessing the meaning of a word or phrase) is more likely to be retained longer and form a stronger memory than information that is processed at a ________ level (such as the visual characteristics of a word).
A) shallower; deeper
B) lower; higher
C) higher; lower
D) deeper; shallower
D) deeper; shallower
Jessica took psychology in the fall semester and is now taking sociology. Several of the concepts are similar, and Jessica finds that she sometimes has trouble recalling some of the major psychological theorists. She keeps getting them confused with sociological theorists. Jessica's problem is most likely due to ________.
A) retroactive interference
B) Toronto syndrome
C) decoding failure
D) proactive interference
A) retroactive interference
The fact that it is easier to recall items at the beginning and end of a list of unrelated items is known as the ________.
A) sequestering effect
B) implicit memory effect
C) phi phenomenon
D) serial position effect
D) serial position effect
The only time selective attention is not working at its peak is ________.
A) during stage 4 sleep, and it is still functioning even then
B) when you are storing items in eidetic imaginal memory
C) when your short-term memory contains more than nine items
D) during REM sleep, as dreams block attention
A) during stage 4 sleep, and it is still functioning even then
When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved, leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it, this is known as ________.
A) auditory decay
B) encoding failure
C) the tip-of-the-tongue effect
D) extinction of acoustic storage
C) the tip-of-the-tongue effect
In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is ________.
A) episodic
B) semantic
C) working
D) procedural
B) semantic
The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the ________ model of memory.
A) information processing
B) top-down storage
C) Tolman's cognitive
D) classical conditioning
A) information processing
Godden and Baddeley found that if you study on land, you do better when tested on land, and if you study underwater, you do better when tested underwater. This finding is an example of ________.
A) memorability
B) encoding specificity
C) accessible decoding
D) registered learning
B) encoding specificity
Most people have difficulty actually recognizing the correct image of the Lincoln penny. The most likely cause of this problem is ________.
A) encoding failure
B) memory trace decay
C) interference
D) repression
A) encoding failure
________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.
A) Memory
B) Learning
C) Operant conditioning
D) Classical conditioning
A) Memory
In the famous case of H. M., after having part of his brain removed, he could no longer ________.
A) form new memories
B) retrieve memories
C) pay attention to specific stimuli
D) make sense of memories
A) form new memories
Which type of long-term memory is most difficult to bring into conscious awareness?
A) episodic memory
B) declarative memories
C) procedural memories
D) semantic memory
C) procedural memories
Information is simultaneously stored across a network that stretches across the brain in the ________.
A) parallel distributed processing model of memory
B) multistore model of memory
C) Craik and Lockhart model of memory
D) information-processing theory of memory
A) parallel distributed processing model of memory
As memories get older, they are most likely ________.
A) to become stronger, more accurate, and more vivid
B) to be regarded as unreliable by the person using them
C) to get lost
D) to become changed or altered in some fashion
D) to become changed or altered in some fashion
People with dementia typically have a memory problem known as ________.
A) retrograde amnesia
B) anterograde amnesia
C) amygdaloid amnesia
D) inferograde amnesia
B) anterograde amnesia
The first step in the memory process is ________ information in a form that the memory system can use.
A) encoding
B) storing
C) evaluating
D) retrieving
A) encoding
Which type of memory allows us to have meaningful conversations?
A) procedural memory
B) iconic memory
C) distributed memory
D) echoic memory
D) echoic memory
In this view, memories are literally "built"from the pieces stored away at encoding. This view is called ________.
A) hindsight bias
B) flashbulb integration
C) adaptation of memory traces
D) constructive processing
D) constructive processing
A time machine provides you the opportunity to interview Sigmund Freud. During the interview, Freud admits that he never wanted to attend medical school. When you ask him how he made it through, he says, "I had eidetic imagery."What does he mean by that?
A) He was able to imagine how cells in a patient's body were acting when he prescribed drugs and, thus, he could adjust dosages.
B) He had a photographic memory, which helped him remember the material he had to learn.
C) In order to remember the long list of diseases he would encounter, he created drawings that helped him remember.
D) He relied on the ability to associate odd images with material he needed to remember.
B) He had a photographic memory, which helped him remember the material he had to learn
In the curve of forgetting developed by Ebbinghaus, the greatest amount of forgetting occurs ________.
A) near the end of the retrieval period
B) within the first day after learning new material
C) within the first hour after learning new material
D) near the middle of the retrieval period
C) within the first hour after learning new material
Which of the following statements about memory retrieval while under hypnosis is NOT TRUE?
A) Age regression through hypnosis can increase the accuracy of recall of early childhood memories.
B) These memories are more accurate than other kinds of memories.
C) Therapists have induced false memories through hypnosis.
D) All of the statements are not true.
D) All of the statements are not true.
When memories are stored in long-term memory, which of the following forms of information is used?
A) sounds
B) meanings of words and concepts
C) visual images
D) all of the above
D) all of the above
The best place to take your biology exam to ensure good retrieval of biology concepts is in ________.
A) the special testing room used for all exams
B) the biology classroom
C) an auditorium to prevent cheating
D) the English classroom
B) the biology classroom
What type of stimuli did Hermann Ebbinghaus use in his memory experiments?
A) nonsense syllables
B) numbers
C) words
D) pictures
A) nonsense syllables
In the 1950s, George Miller estimated the number of items that could be stored in short-term memory to be the magic number ________.
A) 11, plus or minus 1
B) 7, plus or minus 2
C) 9, plus or minus 3
D) 5, plus or minus 4
B) 7, plus or minus 2
Forgetting in long-term memory is most likely due to ________.
A) encoding failure
B) decay or disuse
C) interference from other information
D) none of these
C) interference from other information
Memory is defined as an active system that consists of three processes. They are ________.
A) bottom-up processing, selective attention, and top-down processing
B) the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response
C) acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery
D) receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage
D) receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage
When people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve, which makes it possible for the brain to interpret the sound. This process is called ________.
A) retrieval
B) evaluation
C) encoding
D) storage
C) encoding
Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that was!). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth, but time is up. As Janie is walking down the stairs, all of a sudden, she remembers the fifth point, but it is too late. Janie had a problem with ________.
A) evaluation
B) retrieval
C) encoding
D) storage
B) retrieval
Evidence suggests that short-term memories are stored in the ________.
A) amygdala
B) cerebellum
C) prefrontal lobes of the cortex
D) hippocampus
C) prefrontal lobes of the cortex
Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades?
A) long-term memory
B) implicit memory
C) sensory memory
D) short-term memory
A) long-term memory
Your teacher has given each student the name of a key figure in the history of psychology. The assignment is to describe at least one significant contribution made by this person. If your historical figure is Hermann Ebbinghaus, what contribution might you describe to the class?
A) He developed a series of memory aids that is still used by students today.
B) He discovered the parts of the brain responsible for processing memories.
C) He described the limits of sensory storage.
D) He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a "pure"form.
D) He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a "pure" form
Repeating items over and over in order to aid memory is known as ________ rehearsal.
A) maintenance
B) repetitive
C) imagery
D) elaborative
A) maintenance
The Internet, with its series of links from one site to many others, is a good analogy for the organization of ________.
A) episodic memory
B) procedural memory
C) long-term memory
D) short-term memory
C) long-term memory
One major danger of barbiturates is ________.
A) drug interaction
B) sleepwalking
C) overstimulation
D) hyperactivity
A) drug interaction
The difference between insomnia and apnea is that ________.
A) apnea affects primarily the elderly, whereas insomnia is characteristic of children
B) apnea is a precursor to narcolepsy, whereas insomnia is not
C) insomnia is treatable but apnea is not
D) insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties
D) insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, wheres apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties
Your brain waves are being monitored in a sleep laboratory. If you are in deep sleep less than an hour after falling asleep, what brain waves will be detected?
A) theta
B) delta
C) beta
D) alpha
B) delta
One major danger of barbiturates is ________.
A) overstimulation
B) sleepwalking
C) drug interaction
D) hyperactivity
C) drug interaction
Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can NOT do?
A) Hypnosis cannot give a person superhuman strength.
B) Hypnosis cannot relieve pain.
C) Hypnosis cannot create amnesia.
D) Hypnosis cannot improve memory.
A) Hypnosis cannot give a person superhuman strength.
Each of the following is a sleep disorder EXCEPT ________.
A) REM rebound
B) narcolepsy
C) insomnia
D) night terrors
A) REM rebound
Consciousness is the ________.
A) intentional recollection of an item of information
B) memory of personally experienced events
C) state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes
D) awareness of ourselves and the environment
D) awareness of ourselves and the environment
Which of the following can be an emotional symptom of sleep deprivation?
A) nausea
B) depression
C) cheerfulness
D) hyperactivity
B) depression
Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness?
A) daydreaming
B) concentration
C) intoxication
D) meditation
B) concentration
Melatonin is a ________.
A) sleeping pill
B) hormone
C) depressant
D) stimulant
B) hormone
REM behavior disorder results from ________.
A) deterioration of the medial hypothalamus
B) too much sleep
C) not enough sleep
D) failure of the brain mechanisms to block brain signals to the muscles
D) failure of the brain mechanisms to block brain signals to the muscles
SCN stands for ________.
A) suprachiasmatic nucleus
B) sleep control nucleus
C) serotonin controlled nucleus
D) stop control now
A) suprachiasmatic nucleus
Drugs derived from opium are called ________.
A) psychogenic
B) depressants
C) narcotics
D) stimulants
C) narcotics
Which device would a sleep researcher use to monitor a sleeping person's brain waves?
A) electro-oculograph (EOG)
B) electromyograph (EMG)
C) electroencephalograph (EEG)
D) electrocardiograph (EKG)
C) electroencephalograph (EEG)
Sleep spindles appear during ________ sleep.
A) stage 2
B) stage 1
C) REM
D) stage 4
A) stage 2
Mescaline comes from ________.
A) a poppy plant
B) weeds
C) a virus
D) cactus buttons
D) cactus buttons
Which statement is correct concerning marijuana?
A) There is evidence that marijuana is psychologically addictive.
B) There is evidence that marijuana causes cancer.
C) There is evidence that marijuana is physically addictive.
D) There is no evidence that marijuana is physically or psychologically addictive.
D) There is no evidence that marijuana is physically or psychologically addictive.
A sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night is ________.
A) narcolepsy
B) zombulism
C) insomnia
D) cataplexy
C) insomnia
Melatonin is to ________ as an aspirin is to ________.
A) insomnia; headache
B) apnea; blood thinner
C) nausea; nightmare
D) nightmare; blood clots
A) insomnia; headache
Morphine and heroin duplicate the action of ________.
A) cigarettes
B) alcohol
C) endorphins
D) LSD
C) endorphins
Which of the following statements is correct concerning hypnosis?
A) A hypnotized person is in an involuntary condition of suggestion.
B) People will do things they would not ordinarily do when under hypnosis.
C) A person who is under hypnosis is really in control of his or her behavior.
D) The hypnotist is always in control.
C) A person who is under hypnosis is really in control of his or her behavior.
How does Ernest Hilgard explain pain reduction through hypnosis?
A) Hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body.
B) Hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain responsible for the perception of pain.
C) People merely play the role of the hypnotized person and attempt to ignore the pain.
D) Hypnotized individuals dissociate the experience so part of the mind is unaware of the pain.
D) Hypnotized individuals dissociate the experience so part of the mind is unaware of the pain.
The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called ________.
A) tolerance
B) physical dependence
C) obsessive compulsion
D) a craving
B) physical dependence
A client tells his therapist about a dream in which he drives his wife to the airport where she boards a plane. As the plane takes off, he is smiling. The therapist says the dream suggests a desire for a divorce. The therapist's interpretation represents what Sigmund Freud called the dream's ________.
A) subliminal content
B) deep content
C) manifest content
D) latent content
D) latent content
Jane is experiencing loss of equilibrium, decreased sensory and motor capabilities, and double vision. How many drinks is Jane likely to have had?
A) 6-7
B) 8-10
C) 3-5
D) 1-2
B) 8-10
What two categories of dream content did Sigmund Freud describe?A) poetic and realistic
B) latent and manifest
C) delusional and hallucinatory
D) literal and symbolic
B) latent and manifest
A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The content of this dream, as related by the client to the therapist, is what Freud called its ________.
A) primary content
B) manifest content
C) latent content
D) secondary content
B) manifest content
What term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1-4 of sleep?
A) REMN sleep
B) REM sleep
C) Non-REM sleep
D) paradoxical sleep
C) Non-REM sleep
Stage 4 sleep is marked by ________ waves.
A) beta
B) alpha
C) delta
D) theta
C) delta
Morphine and heroin duplicate the action of ________.
A) alcohol
B) endorphins
C) cigarettes
D) LSD
B) endorphins
What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?
A) positive reinforcement
B) punishment
C) positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
D) negative reinforcement
B) punishment
An animal is conditioned to salivate to a bell using Pavlovian procedures. After the conditioning is established, the animal is then put through an extinction procedure and the conditioned salivation disappears. Then the animal is removed from the test situation for several days. When returned to the test situation, the conditioned response is seen again. The effect is known as ________.
A) stimulus generalization
B) spontaneous recovery
C) higher-order conditioning
D) extinction
B) spontaneous recovery
One might expect that classical conditioning was discovered by a psychologist. However, it was discovered by a ________.
A) physiologist who was studying memory processes in monkeys
B) physician who was studying the age at which children start to walk
C) physiologist who was studying digestion
D) dog trainer who was trying to come up with the best way to reward animals for their performances in his shows
C) physiologist who was studying digestion
A box used in operant conditioning of animals that limits the available responses and, thus, increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur is called a ________.
A) trial box
B) Skinner box
C) Watson box
D) response box
B) Skinner box
The abbreviation UCS stands for ________.
A) unconditional statement
B) unconditioned stimulus
C) uniform conditioned subject
D) unconditional sensation
B) unconditioned stimulus
Bill hates to clean up after dinner. One night, he volunteers to bathe the dog before cleaning up. When he finishes with the dog and returns to the kitchen, his wife has cleaned everything up for him. Which of the following statements is most likely true?
A) Bill's wife has positively reinforced him for bathing the dog.
B) Bill will never bathe the dog again.
C) Bill's wife has negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog.
D) Bill will start cleaning up the kitchen before he bathes the dog.
C) Bill's wife has negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog
The abbreviation UCR stands for ________.
A) unconditional retention
B) unconditional reinforcement
C) unconditioned response
D) uniform conditioned rule
C) unconditioned response
An expert on parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. When the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to note for the parents to consider?
A) Punished children tend to do really well in school.
B) Punishment motivates the child to focus on schoolwork.
C) Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.
D) Punishment tends to increase the number of nightmares experienced.
C) Punishment tends to increase the number of nightmares experienced
After Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell, he experimented with ringing the bell and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. This represents the process called ________.
A) testing
B) extinction
C) acquisition
D) spontaneous recovery
B) extinction
When a strongly conditioned CS is used to make another stimulus into a second CS, the effect is known as ________.
A) spontaneous recovery
B) stimulus generalization
C) higher-order conditioning
D) extinction
C) higher-order conditioning
The "aha!"experience is known as ________.
A) latent learning
B) thoughtful learning
C) serial enumeration
D) insight learning
D) insight learning
The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was ________.
A) Tolman
B) Kohler
C) Pavlov
D) Skinner
C) Pavlov
Which of the following conditions have been treated with neurofeedback?
A) ADHD
B) epilepsy
C) autism
D) All of these have been treated with neurofeedback.
D) All of these have been treated with neurofeedback
A discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that ________.
A) cues the person into which schedule of reinforcement is being used in operant conditioning
B) provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
C) Watson used to make Little Albert scared of all fuzzy things
D) leads a person to discriminate against one group of people based on ethnicity or race
B) provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
A key element in the use of biofeedback is teaching a person to induce a state of ________ to help gain control over biological functions.
A) relaxation
B) sleep
C) heightened awareness
D) anxiety
A) relaxation
A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on ________.
A) classical conditioning
B) cognitive learning
C) operant conditioning
D) vicarious learning
C) operant conditioning
Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called ________.
A) latent learning
B) innate learning
C) vicarious learning
D) insight
A) latent learning
What was the conditioned stimulus (CS) in the case of Little Albert?
A) a small enclosed space
B) a white rat
C) a loud noise
D) a high chair
B) a white rat
After a CS comes to elicit the CR, the CS now can be paired with a new neutral stimulus and this second neutral stimulus will start to elicit a CR. This process is called ________.
A) higher-order conditioning
B) neoclassical conditioning
C) operant conditioning
D) generalization
A) higher-order conditioning
In order to learn anything through observation, the learner must ________.
A) be capable of reproducing the model's action
B) pay attention to the model
C) be able to retain the memory of the model's action
D) All of these processes are necessary.
D) All of these processes are necessary
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Different parts of the brain are specialized for the storage of memories.
B) Memories are randomly distributed throughout the brain.
C) All memories are stored in one place in the brain.
D) Almost all memories are primarily stored in the brain stem.
A) Different parts of the brain are specialized for the storage of memories.
What "magic number" did Miller find to be the capacity of short-term memory?
A) 11
B) 7
C) 9
D) 5
B) 7
False positives occur when a person incorrectly "matches"a stimulus that is merely similar to a real memory to that memory. One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that ________.
A) witnesses are prone to habituate to the courtroom and forget what happened
B) false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate
C) extinction of auditory memories causes the witness to forget what was said
D) None of these are true.
B) false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate
Flashbulb memories ________.
A) usually concern events that are emotionally charged
B) are not subject to periodic revision
C) are almost always highly accurate
D) usually concern events from early childhood
A) usually concern events that are emotionally charged
When a person's ________ is damaged or removed, anterograde amnesia, or the inability to form new memories, results.
A) amygdala
B) prefrontal lobe
C) hippocampus
D) cerebellum
C) hippocampus
The case of Father Bernard Pagano, who was identified by seven eyewitnesses as a criminal, was an instance of a ________.
A) tip-of-the-tongue effect
B) false positive
C) retrieval failure
D) primacy effect
B) false positive
Long-term memory is thought to be organized in the form of ________.
A) semantic networks or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge
B) alphabetical lists of semantic concepts, time-based lists of life events, body-part—specific motor skills
C) conditioned responses and associations
D) none of these
A) semantic networks or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge
When given a list of items to remember, you are more likely to remember ________.
A) the items at the end more than those in the middle or at the beginning of the list
B) the items in the beginning better than those in the middle or at the end
C) the items in the middle more than those at the beginning or at the end
D) the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list
D) the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list
Why did research participants in Sperling's experiment recall so few letters stored in sensory memory?
A) Proactive interference reduced the effectiveness of recall.
B) They stopped paying attention after a few stimuli.
C) The remaining stimuli quickly faded from sensory memory.
D) The stress of participating in this research became excessive.
C) The remaining stimuli quickly faded from sensory memory.
The research of Eich and Metcalf would suggest that if you were really happy when you were learning math, you should be ________ when taking the math exam to do well.
A) depressed
B) happy
C) calm
D) nervous
B) happy
You are invited to take part in a study by a researcher trying to replicate the work of Hermann Ebbinghaus. What might this researcher ask you to do?
A) "Read this poem and then interpret its meaning."
B) "Listen to me: BEC, DAX, FER, KOJ; now repeat what I said."
C) "Listen to these sounds and write down words that come to mind."
D) "Write down all the words you can remember."
B) "Listen to me: BEC, DAX, FER, KOJ; now repeat what I said."
Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten ________.
A) most quickly one day after learning
B) quickly at first, then tapers off gradually
C) gradually at first, then with increasing speed
D) more rapidly as time goes by
B) quickly at first, then tapers off gradually
Which of the following examples represents deep processing as described by Craik and Lockhart?
A) looking at the shapes of the letters in a word
B) attending to the sound of a word
C) repeating a word aloud ten times
D) thinking about the meaning of a word
D) thinking about the meaning of a word
Which of the following statements is CORRECT concerning the concept of gender and dreams?
A) Men dream more each night than women.
B) Women tend to dream twice as much as men.
C) Research reports that men and women differ in the things they dream about.
D) Men and women typically dream about similar things.
C) Research reports that men and women differ in the things they dream about.
The hypothalamus controls the ________.
A) growth hormones that occur during sleep
B) sleep-wake cycle
C) frequency of nightmares
D) hypnotic suggestibility ratio
B) sleep-wake cycle
Daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, sleep, and hypnosis are all types of ________.
A) altered states of consciousness
B) waking consciousness
C) self-awareness
D) self-absorption
A) altered states of consciousness
Psychoactive drugs are ________.
A) drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system
B) drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior
C) drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system
D) drugs derived from the opium poppy that relieve pain and produce euphoria
B) drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior
A newspaper advertisement describes a book that offers interpretations of dreams. In attempting to tell readers the meaning of the symbols of their dreams, the author intends to describe the ________.
A) manifest content
B) latent content
C) deep content
D) subliminal content
B) latent content
Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located?
A) thalamus
B) basal ganglia
C) cerebellum
D) hypothalamus
D) hypothalamus
Which of the following conditions would you least like the pilot flying your airplane to have?
A) sleep terror
B) enuresis
C) narcolepsy
D) daytime insomnia
C) narcolepsy
Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can NOT do?
A) Hypnosis cannot improve memory.
B) Hypnosis cannot regress people back to childhood.
C) Hypnosis cannot alter sensory perceptions.
D) Hypnosis cannot create amnesia.
B) Hypnosis cannot regress people back to childhood.
One of the main semantic problems with using sleepwalking as a defense for murder is ________.
A) the correct term for this type of behavior is REM behavior disorder
B) true sleepwalking does not really exist
C) sleepwalkers really don't walk
D) most murderers do not sleep well
A) the correct term for this type of behavior is REM behavior disorder
What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?
A) positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
B) punishment
C) negative reinforcement
D) positive reinforcement
B) punishment
Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. After a while he notices
that the fish swim to the top to look for the food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the
________ is the unconditioned stimulus.
A) presence of Alan near the aquarium
B) aquarium light
C) fish food
D) fish swimming to the top
C) fish food
A ________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.
A) positive
B) primary
C) negative
D) secondary
B) primary
Which of the following statements is true regarding punishment?
A) Severe punishment creates fear and anxiety.
B) Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement.
C) The effect of punishment is often temporary.
D) All of these statements are true.
D) All of these statements are true.
An important example of conditioned taste aversions might be ________.
A) chemotherapy patients losing their appetites for food served around the same time they had their treatments
B) farmers leaving out sheep meat laced with a nauseating substance for coyotes to find in hopes of teaching them not to eat sheep
C) Both of these are examples of taste aversions.
D) Neither of these are examples of conditioned taste aversions.
C) Both of these are examples of taste aversions.
Bob has learned that he can usually get what he wants from his parents if he keeps whining for something. One day Bob starts whining in the toy store because he wants a GI JOE action figure. His father refuses to give it to him and ignores his whining. What will happen?
A) spontaneous recovery
B) extinction
C) discrimination
D) generalization
B) extinction
"The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of cues present when the memory was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved."What concept does this statement describe?
A) accessible decoding
B) memorability
C) encoding specificity
D) registered learning
C) encoding specificity
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ________.
A) recency effect
B) primacy effect
C) phi phenomenon
D) chunking effect
B) primacy effect
The duration of iconic memory is ________ than echoic memory, but iconic's capacity is probably ________.
A) shorter; larger
B) longer; about the same
C) longer; larger
D) shorter; about the same
A) shorter; larger
Which model of memory proposes that the deeper a person processes information, the better it will be remembered?
A) parallel distributed processing model
B) levels-of-processing model
C) information-processing model
D) three stage
B) levels-of-processing model
Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating, is called ________.
A) intelligence
B) self-awareness
C) consciousness
D) creativity
C) consciousness
Which of the following neurotransmitters are associated with alcohol?
A) adrenalin
B) GABA
C) endorphins
D) acetylcholine
B) GABA
Learning is said to be a relatively permanent change in behavior because ________.
A) it is thought that when learning occurs some part of the brain physically changes
B) memory processes, unlike learning processes, are not permanent
C) it is thought that learning changes the nerve fiber patterns in your muscles
D) once you learn something, you will never fail to remember it or carry out the correct action
A) it is thought that when learning occurs some part of the brain physically changes
College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only halfhearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ________.
A) learned helplessness
B) latent learning
C) contingency blocking
D) response generalization
A) learned helplessness
Work with electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) for severe depression suggests that consolidation ________.
A) may take weeks to complete
B) only takes a short time
C) may take years to complete
D) may take months to complete
C) may take years to complete
Which statement is correct concerning how much sleep people need?
A) Most people need between 7 and 8 hours of sleep.
B) Women need more sleep than men.
C) Men need more sleep than women.
D) Most people need at least 10 hours.
A) Most people need between 7 and 8 hours of sleep.
Neurofeedback, a newer type of biofeedback, involves trying to change ________.
A) brain wave activity
B) heart rate
C) body temperature
D) blood pressure
A) brain wave activity
________ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to ________ rehearsal.
A) Permanent; condensed
B) Elaborative; maintenance
C) Maintenance; elaborative
D) Condensed; permanent
B) Elaborative; maintenance