Unit 4: Byzantium and Medieval Europe
Terms in this set (33)
the body of laws governing the religious practices of a Christian churche.
all parts of the world inhabited by Christians.
Code of Justinian
the body of Roman civil law collected and organized by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian around A.D. 534. It served as the legal framework for the Byzantine Empire for nine centuries.
the Christian religious faith practiced in the Byzantine Empire, centered in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). It split from the Roman Catholic Church in A.D. 1054, recognizing the patriarch, rather than the Pope, as its leader.
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
medieval associations of people working at the same occupation which controlled its members' wages and prices.
meaning "Great Charter" - a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in A.D. 1215.
the organizing principle of the rural economy that was widely practiced in medieval Europe. In feudal Europe, the manor was the lord's estate.
the era in European history that followed the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500 - also called the medieval period.
the Christian church that traces its history to Jesus Christ and the Apostles and has been the main spiritual force in the history of Western civilization. Along with Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism, it is one of the three major branches of Christianity.
Christian ceremonies in which God's grace is transmitted to people. Baptism, communion, and matrimony are examples.
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted (lay fallow).
Battle of Tours
a battle won by Charles Martel, ruler of the Frankish kingdoms, in A.D. 732 over Muslim invaders from Spain. It has often been regarded as decisive for world history, since it preserved western Europe from Muslim conquest and Islāmization.
the Eastern half of the Roman Empire centered in Constantinople. It would survive for a thousand years after the decline of the Western half of the Empire. Many years of foreign attacks weakened the empire before Constantinople finally fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
capital city of the Byzantine Empire.
the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires.
an Eastern Orthodox church located in Constantinople and built during the reign of Justinian. It would later become a mosque after Ottoman conquests and is now a museum in modern day Istanbul, Turkey.
Holy Roman Empire
an empire established in Europe in the 10th century, originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
the lord's estate in feudal Europe.
religious communities of men (called monks) or women (called nuns) who have given up their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and worship - can additionally be referred to as abbeys or convents.
Aquinas, St. Thomas
an Italian Dominican priest, philosopher and theologian of the Roman Catholic Church who deeply influenced Western philosophy. He is noted for blending ancient Greek thought with the Christian thought of his own time.
(Charles the Great) a Frankish king who expanded the Germanic Frankish kingdom into an empire (Carolingian) that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries. He was crowned "Roman Emperor" by Pope Leo III, an event that signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Catholic Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire.
a variety of ethnic groups (Franks, Angles, Saxons, Visigoths, etc.) located north of the Roman Empire and along its northern border that would eventually overrun the Western half of the Roman Empire, bringing about the start of the Middle Ages.
Byzantine Emperor from A.D. 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Roman Empire's greatness, for a time winning back nearly all the lands that had been lost in the western half of the Roman Empire. He is also noted for his codifying of Roman law (Code of Justinian), and rebuilding the Christian church, Hagia Sophia, in Constantinople.
in medieval Europe, armored warriors who fought on horseback.
in medieval Europe, persons who controlled land and could therefore grant estates (fiefs) to vassals.
ruler of the Frankish kingdoms in the 8th century and victor at the Battle of Tours.
head of the Eastern Orthodox Church of the Byzantine Empire.
head of the Roman Catholic Church.
Pope Urban II
a Pope who, in 1095, issued a plea that resulted in the First Crusade. He also established the Roman Curia that organizes and coordinates the activities of the Roman Catholic Church.
medieval peasants legally bound to live and labor on a lord's estate.
the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century. They were main contributors to the destruction of the Carolingian Empire established by Charlemagne.
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