Chapter 17 Human Geography (Malinowski and Kaplan)

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Terms in this set (...)

Barter
Goods and services traded for other goods and services
Cash Exchanges
A way of placing abstract value on products and services for easier trade
International Trade
Exchange of goods and services across country boundaries
Trade Surplus
When exports are greater than imports
Trade Deficit
When imports are greater than exports
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Represents most of the worlds economies and enforces the rules of free trade
Protectionism
When a country seeks to limit trade
Embargo
Choking off supplies of critical resources
Competitive Advantage
Takes into account infrastructure, skilled labor, govt, domestic demand, and competition
Productivity
Measures the relative output per unit of labor
Finance Capital
Covers the money that is available to finance industries
Human Capital
Refers to a populations level of education and skills
Fixed Capital
Investment in existing buildings, machines, transportation and other structural items
Entrepreneurship
Development of new industries and/or markets, to maintain a competitive edge
Mercantilism
Policy of reducing barriers within an empire while creating external barriers
Tariff
Tax on items leaving or entering a country
Quota
Limit on the number of imports or exports
Currency Manipulation
Keeping currency artificially low to manipulate import and export costs
Demand Conditions
What products countries are likely to import related to wealth
Discretionary Income
The amount of money available to satisfy various whims
Conveyances
Modes of travel including boats, horses, motor vehicles, aircraft, etc
Transportation Facilities
Improvements or upgrades that ease and increase the volume of travel
Transportation Infrastructure
The availability and quality of transportation networks in a country
Nodes
Places in a transportation network that are intersections or have their own importance
Links
Routes that connect nodes
Network
The entire pattern of nodes and links
Network Connectivity
The degree to which direct movements are possible over a network
Intelligent Transportation Systems
A network that coordinates traffic signals and overall patterns and flows of traffic
Gallatin Plan
1808 plan to coordinate water and land transportation networks to spur westward expansion of USA
Commuting
Travel for the purpose of getting to and from work
Single-Occupancy Motor Vehicle Travel
The vehicles that are used by 80% of Americans to get to work
Central Places
1930s Walter Christaller idea that different types of stores cluster into shopping centers
Retail Chains
Stores that have several locations owned by the same company
Nonstore Retailing
The buying and selling of goods that take place outside of a store setting
Niche Markets
Retailers that sell goods that fulfill a particular need
E-Tailing
Online vending of goods