Life Science Chapter 7 Evolution

Chapter 7-- The Evolution of Living Things Section 1- Change Over Time Section 2- How Does Evolution Happen? Section 3- Natural Selection in Action
STUDY
PLAY
adaptation
a characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment
species
a group of organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring
population
groups of individuals of the same species living in the same place/area
evolution
the process in which population gradually change over time
sediments
particles of sand, dust, or soil
fossils
the remains or imprints of once-living organisms found in layers of rock
fossil record
a historical sequence of life indicated by fossils found in layers of the Earth's crust.
tree of life
a scientist-made diagram that uses information and includes all-known organisms
mammals
animals that breathe air, give birth to live young, and produce milk
naturalist
a scientist who studies nature
trait
a specific characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring through genes
selective breeding
the process in which humans select which plants or animals to reproduce based on certain desired traits
natural selection
the process in which organisms that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted organisms do
selection
only organisms that carry certain genes can survive to reproduce
generation time
the average time between one generation and the next
speciation
the formation of a new species due to evolution
Example of natural selection
excessive use of antibiotics has resulted in the development of "super bacteria" that are resistant to antibiotics
Charles Darwin
scientist who helped explain how species change over time
Sources of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution
•The writings of Thomas Malthus and Charles Lyell
•Darwin's observations of the Galapagos finches
•The selective breeding practices of farmers and breeders
Populations are limited by:
Starvation, Disease, Competition, Predation
Signs that different species may have a common ancestor
Similar DNA and Similar traits
Evidence whales evolved from mammals that once lived on land
•Fossil discoveries that link whales to mammals
•The hip bones of whales
•The fact that whales are mammals