Freshwater Biology- Water_ Cooper
Terms in this set (55)
Water percentage of earth surface?
Frozen water percentage?
Actually usable water for human survival?
Less than 1%
Physical phases of water
Solid (glass or crystal)
Density of water
Density of air
Water affects aquatic organisms in what ways?
Terrestrial environmental challenges
1. Primary force to overcome is gravity
2. Distributed on limbs
3. Flying must overcome air resistance
Aquatic environmental challenges
1. Forces are pressure and fluid resistance (drag)
2. Pressure hinders inhalation so aquatic organisms
3. Resistance is overcome by body shape and
How are atoms held?
What determines which atoms interact?
Number and distribution of electrons
Where are electrons found?
Electron or energy shells
When are atoms most stable?
When their outer shells are full
How many vacancies does Carbon and Hydrogen have?
What kind of bonds holds water?
How does water and methane bonds compare?
In methane, all atoms share electrons equally
In water, the oxygen atom pulls the electrons more strongly than the hydrogen atoms
The measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons
The charge difference between two atoms
What kind of bonds hold a water molecule?
Polar covalent bonds
What other kind of bond does water's polarity cause?
Describe Hydrogen bonding in water
The positive charge on the Hydrogen atom in one water molecule is attracted to the negative charge on the oxygen atom on another water molecule
Where is Hydrogen bonding important?
1. In the unique properties of water
2. Protein and DNA structure
What ions can water split into?
H+ and OH-
When is water neutral?
When equal amounts of H+ and OH- are present
When is water more acidic?
When there is a greater number of H+ ions
When is water more basic or alkaline?
When there is a greater number of OH- ions
What is the formula for pH?
pH = -log [H+]
What are buffer molecules?
These are molecules that help maintain a constant pH by binding or releasing H+
Unique properties of water
2. Hydrophylic ability
3. Hydrophobic ability
4. High specific heat
5.Solvent of life's biochemistry
6. Good solvent
What biochemical pathways is water a solvent for?
2. Cellular respiration
3. Oxygen transport etc...
What is the composition of air?
1. Nitrogen gas - 78.6%
2. Oxygen gas - 20.9%
3. Water vapor - 0.5%
Carbon dioxide - 0.04%
Dalton's Law and partial pressure
Individual gases in a mixture exert pressure proportional to their abundance
PN2 + PO2 + PH2O + PCO2 =760 mmHg
The amount of gas in a solution is directly proportional to its partial pressure
Define Gas content?
The actual amount of a gas in a solution (at a particular partial pressure and temperature) depends on the solubility of that gas in that particular liquid
Solubility in Body fluids
CO2 > O2 > N2
How much more soluble is CO2 in water than O2?
What is the relationship between Solubility and temperature?
Salinity of fresh water
CA2+, Mg2+, HCO3-
How is Salinity is measured?
In specific conductance or conductivity of water
What is TDS?
Total Dissolved Solid
Types of TDS
1. Organic and inorganic salts
2. Non-ionized components
3. Organic compounds (sugars and acids)
4. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)
What causes Hardness of water?
The presence of dissolved calcium and magnesium carbonates
Formula for power
(Force x distance)/ time
(1/2) x p x v3
where v=velocity; p=density of water
Ability to change, damage, erode the environment
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 degrees C to 15.5 degrees C
How many calories causes ice to melt?
How many calories causes water to evaporate?
2. Mass transport
3. Periodic movements
5. Foam streaks
6. Lunar tides
What can turbulent flows in a stream cause?
Eddies: circular turbulence at all scales
Billows: occurs between density layers in water
Gyres: Large eddies (100m to km)
Periodic movements include:
Wavelength- distance between crest
Amplitude- height of a wave
Usually the wavelength is about 20 times the amplitude
Seiches (standing waves)
Wind blown water causing one side of a lake to "pile up" water depth and water flows back after the wind has stopped. Water sloshes back and forth until viscosity overcomes inertia.
Linear white caps in open water
Waves breaking on shore
Build as depth decreases
Similar to ocean tides
Based on the size of the body of water
Much smaller in lakes
Maybe only 2 cm in the great lakes