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Edexcel IGCSE biology- biological molecules and human nutrition questions
Terms in this set (27)
What is meant by the term organ
tissue(s) that carry out (same) function / different cell types that carry out (same) function / eq;
Descibe the two chemical tests someone could use to identify each type of carbohydrate, starch and glucose
2. Browny orange to blue black colour- starch
3. Benedict's / eq;
4. heat / use water bath / eq;
5. Blue to brick red = glucose
Molecule used to store carbohydrate in animals
Molecule used to store carbohydrate in plants
Molecule used to store carbohydrates in fungi
Describe the role of the liver in digestion
emulsifies / large drops to small drops / eq;
neutralise / optimum pH / alkaline;
Describe the process of digestion in the mouth (3)
1. Amylase produced
2. Starch digested
3. Maltose / glucose
4. Physical digestion / mechanical digestion / chewing...
Fish are a good source of protein in the human diet. Describe what happens to fish protein in the gut of a human
digested / broken down;
amino acids / (poly)peptides; stomach;
protease / named protease enzyme (ONCE);
HCl / acid / low pH / eq;
small intestine / duodenum / ileum; bile / neutralise /alkaline / eq; optimum pH (ONCE)
Name the chemical used to test for starch
Explain what happens in a leaf when it is destarched
starch removed / starch used / no starch / eq; (converted to) glucose;
respiration / energy
Describe how food is moved through the gut
pushed / squeezed / waves / eq
Explain how egestion differs from excretion
faeces versus named excretory product; undigested food versus metabolic waste product; anus versus kidney/lung/skin;
not in cells versus in cells
Explain what is meant by the term saprotrophic nutrition (2)
1 (feed on) dead / rotting / decomposing / eq;
3 extracellular / outside / external / eq;
4 digests / digestion / digestive;
Suggest what happens to starch in the gut of a parakeet
digested / broken down
amylase / carbohydrase
maltose / glucose / sugar
Describe and explain how the structure of the small intestine is adapted for absorbing digested food.
2. villi / villus / microvilli;
3. increase surface area / eq;
4. diffusion / active transport / osmosis;
6. (blood flow) maintains concentration gradient / maintains diffusion gradient;
7. thin walls / one cell thick / short distance; (applies to villi or capillaries)
Suggest the consequences of having a diet that lacks fresh fruit and fibre.
1. lack vitamin C / antioxidant / scurvy / bleeding gums / eq;
2. constipation / less food movement / bowel cancer / raised cholesterol / increase heart disease / eq
Suggest the consequences of having a diet that contains too much fat.
1. obesity / increase in weight / eq;
2. blockage of arteries;
3. high blood pressure / stroke / heart disease / raised cholesterol / eq;
5. joint damage / arthritis / eq; 6. gall stones
Description of egestion
removal of undigested food / faeces / waste from anus
Description of digestion
break down large molecules / large molecules to small molecules / insoluble to soluble molecules;
Cells do not store glucose. Instead it is converted into glycogen to be stored. Suggest why cells do not store glucose.
1. soluble / dissolves; 2. osmotic effect / eq;
Give three ways in which villi are adapted to absorb small food molecules.
1. large surface area / microvilli;
2. thin / short diffusion distance / eq; 3. blood / capillaries / eq;
Molecule used to store carbohydrates in animals
Molecule used to store carbohydrates in plants
Molecule used to store carbohydrates in fungi
Growth hormone is a protein.
It might be present in the milk produced by the cows and then be consumed by humans. Some people are worried that this may harm humans. Other people say that this is not a problem for two reasons.
Firstly, the milk is pasteurised (heated to high temperatures).
Secondly, the growth hormone is destroyed in the human stomach.
(i) Suggest what happens to the growth hormone when milk is pasteurised.
Describe how the growth hormone could be destroyed in the stomach
1. HCl / hydrochloric acid;
2. enzyme / protease / pepsin
3. Breakdown/ digest
4. (acid) denatures growth hormone
Explain how the villi are adapted to absorb glucose
1. large surface area;
2. microvilli ;
4. movement of blood / concentration gradient / eq;
5. one cell thick / thin wall / thin / short distance;
7. active transport;
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